Density and Proximity of Tobacco Outlets to Homes and Schools: Relations with Youth Cigarette Smoking
- 426 Downloads
This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and school addresses within city boundaries. Observations in the 45 cities were conducted to document addresses of tobacco outlets. City- and buffer-level demographics were obtained and negative binomial regression analyses with cluster robust standard errors were conducted. All models were adjusted for youth gender, age, and race. Greater densities of tobacco outlets within both a 0.75 and 1-mile buffer of youth homes were associated with higher smoking frequency. Neither tobacco outlet densities around schools nor distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from home or school were associated with youths past-30-day smoking frequency. Lower population density and percent of African Americans in areas around homes and lower percent of unemployed in areas around schools were associated with greater smoking frequency. Results of this study suggest that restricting outlet density within at least 1-mile surrounding residential areas will help to reduce youth smoking.
KeywordsYouth cigarette smoking Tobacco outlets Density Proximity Tobacco control
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflict of interests.
This publication was made possible by grant CA138956 from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and grant 19CA-016 from the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP; http://www.trdrp.org). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official view of NCI and TRDRP.
- Adachi-Mejia, A. M., Carlos, H. A., Berke, E. M., Tanski, S. E., & Sargent, J. D. (2012). A comparison of individual versus community influences on youth smoking behaviours: A cross-sectional observational study. BMJ Open, 2, e000767. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000767 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Armstrong, M. P., Rushton, G., & Zimmerman, D. L. (1999). Geographically masking health data to preserve confidentiality. Statistics in Medicine, 18, 497–525. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0258(19990315)18:5<497::AID-SIM45>3.0.CO;2-# CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). YRBSS: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.Google Scholar
- ChangeLab Solutions (2012). Tobacco laws affecting California 2012. Oakland, CA: ChangeLab Solutions. Retrieved from: http://changelabsolutions.org/sites/default/files/documents/2012_CALawsBooklet_FINAL_20120515.pdf
- Frank, L. D., Saelense, B. E., Powell, K. E., & Chapman, J. E. (2007). Stepping towards causation: Do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity? Social Science and Medicine, 65, 1898–1914. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.05.053 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- GeoLytics Inc. (2010). Estimates Premium 2010. [DVD] E. Brunswick, NJ.Google Scholar
- Henriksen, L., Feighery, E., Schleicher, N., Cowling, D., Kline, R., & Fortmann, S. (2008). Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? Preventive Medicine, 47, 210–214. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.04.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lipperman-Kreda, S., & Grube, J. W. (2009). Students’ perception of community disapproval, perceived enforcement of school antismoking policies, personal beliefs, and their cigarette smoking behaviors: Results from a structural equation modeling analysis. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 11, 531–539. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntp033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lipperman-Kreda, S., Grube, J. W., & Paschall, M. J. (2010). Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: An explanatory model. Journal of Community Health, 35, 249–257. doi: 10.1007/s10900-010-9229-6 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lipperman-Kreda, S., Grube, J. W., & Friend, K. B. (2012a). Contextual and community factors associated with youth access to cigarettes through commercial sources. Tobacco Control. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050473
- Reitzel, L. R., Cromley, E. K., Li, Y., Cao, Y., Dela Mater, R., Mazas, C. A., . . . Wetter, D. W. (2011). The effect of tobacco outlet density and proximity on smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 315–320. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.191676 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- StataCorp. (2009). Stata Statistical Software: Release 11. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- Treno, A. J., Ponicki, W. R., Stockwell, T., Macdonald, S., Gruenewald, P. J., Zhao, J., … Greer, A. (2013). Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: The British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 37, 854–859. doi: 10.1111/acer.12065 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- West, J. H., Blumberg, E. J., Kelley, N. J., Hill, L., Sipan, C. L., Schmitz, K. E., . . . Hovell, M. F. (2010). Does proximity to retailers influence alcohol and tobacco use among Latino adolescents? Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 12, 626–633. doi: 10.1007/s10903-009-9303-2 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar