Reducing Aggression and Impulsivity Through School-Based Prevention Programs: A Gene by Intervention Interaction
- 1.6k Downloads
A variety of school-based, universal preventive interventions have been developed to address behavioral and mental health problems. Unfortunately, few have been evaluated within the context of randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up. Even fewer still have examined the potential genetic factors that may drive differential impact of the intervention. In the present analysis, we examine the extent to which the longitudinal effects of two elementary school-based interventions were moderated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which has been linked with aggression and impulsive behaviors. The sample included 678 urban, primarily African American children who were randomly assigned along with their teachers to one of three first grade classroom conditions: classroom-centered (CC) intervention, Family School Partnership (FSP), or a control condition. The teacher ratings of the youth's aggressive and impulsive behavior were obtained at baseline and in grades 6–12. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the BDNF gene were extracted from the genome-wide data. Longitudinal latent trait–state–error models indicated a significant interaction between a particular profile of the BDNF SNP cluster (46 % of sample) and CC intervention on impulsivity (β = −.27, p < .05). A similar interaction was observed for the BDNF SNP cluster and the CC intervention on aggression (β = −.14, p < .05). The results suggest that the impacts of preventive interventions in early elementary school on late adolescent outcomes of impulsivity and aggression can be potentially modified by genetic factors, such as BDNF. However, replication of these results is necessary before firm conclusions can be drawn.
KeywordsAggression Impulsivity Genes Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Intervention Schools
This research was supported by grants to Nicholas Ialongo from the National Institute of Mental Health (MH57005 and T32 MH18834), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA R37 DA11796), and a grant to Hoover Adger from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (T71MC08054).
- Bradshaw, C. P., Zmuda, J. H., Kellam, S. G., & Ialongo, N. S. (2009). Longitudinal impact of two universal preventive interventions in first grade on educational outcomes in high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 926–937. doi: 10.1037/a0016586.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bradshaw, C. P., Schaeffer, C. M., Petras, H., & Ialongo, N. (2010). Predicting negative life outcomes from early aggressive-disruptive behavior trajectories: Gender differences in maladaptation across life domains. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 953–966. doi: 10.1007/s10964-009-9442-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brody, G. H., Beach, S. R. H., Philibert, R. A., Chen, Y., & Murry, V. M. (2009). Prevention effects moderate the association of 5-HTTLPR and youth risk behavior initiation: Gene × environment hypotheses tested via a randomized prevention design. Child Development, 80, 645–661. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01288.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canter, L., & Canter, M. (1991). Parents on your side: A comprehensive parent involvement program for teachers. Santa Monica: Lee Center.Google Scholar
- Cleynen, I., Mahachie, J. J. M., Henckaerts, L., Van Moerkerche, W., Rutgeerts, P., Van Steen, K., & Vermeire, S. (2010). Molecular reclassification of Crohn's disease by cluster analysis of genetic variants. PloS One, 5, e12952. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012952.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cole, D. A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Girgus, J., & Paul, G. (2006). Stress exposure and stress generation in child and adolescent depression: A latent trait-state-error approach to longitudinal analyses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 40–51. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.1.40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ialongo, N. S., Werthamer, L., Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Wang, S., & Lin, Y. (1999). Proximal impact of two first-grade preventive interventions on the early risk behaviors for later substance abuse, depression, and antisocial behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 599–641. doi: 10.1023/A:1022137920532.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ialongo, N., Rogosch, F. A., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., Buckley, J., Petras, H., & Neiderhiser, J. (2006). A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Theory and method 2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 968–1018). New York: Wiley Press.Google Scholar
- Institute of Education Sciences. (2011). The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District Assessment Reading 2011. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2012455.
- Institute of Education Sciences. (2012). Fast Facts. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=16.
- Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N., Wang, W., Toyinbo, P., & Wilcox, H. C. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95, S5–S28. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.01.004.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lasky-Su, J., Faraone, S. V., Lange, C., Tsuang, M. T., Doyle, A. E., Smoller, J. W., & Biederman, J. (2007). A study of how socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between SNPs encompassing BDNF and ADHD symptom counts in ADHD families. Behavior Genetics, 37, 487–497. doi: 10.1007/s10519-006-9136-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee, J., Laurin, N., Crosbie, J., Ickowicz, A., Pathare, T., Malone, M., & Carr, C. L. (2007). Association study of the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 144B, 976–981. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course persistent versus adolescent-limited antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Risk, disorder, and adaptation 2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 570–598). New York: Wiley Press.Google Scholar
- Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class/latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. Sayer (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291–322). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2011). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Author.Google Scholar
- Oades, R. D., Lasky-Su, J., Christiansen, H., Farone, S. V., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Banaschewski, T., & Asherson, P. (2008). The influence of serotonin and other genes on impulsive behavioral aggression and cognitive impulsivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Findings from a family-based association test (FBAT) analysis. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 4, 48. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-4-48.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Patterson, G. R., Reid, J., & Dishion, T. (1992). A Social Learning Approach: IV. Antisocial Boys. Eugene: Castalia Press.Google Scholar
- Perie, M., Grigg, W. S., Donahue, P. L. (2006). The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2005. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pubs/main2005/2006451.asp
- Petras, H., Chilcoat, H. D., Leaf, P. J., Ialongo, N. S., & Kellam, S. G. (2004). Utility of TOCA-R scores during the elementary school years in identifying later violence among adolescent males. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 88–96. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200401000-00018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petras, H., Masyn, K., & Ialongo, N. (2011). The developmental impact of two first grade preventive interventions on aggressive/disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence: an application of latent transition growth mixture modeling. Prevention Science, 12, 300–313. doi: 10.1007/s11121-011-0216-7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Purcell, S., Neale, B., Todd-Brown, K., Thomas, L., Ferreira, M. A. R., Bender, D., & Sham, P. C. (2007). PLINK: A tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. American Journal of Human Genetics, 81, 559–575. doi: 10.1086/519795.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uhl, G. R., Walther, D., Musci, R., Fisher, C., Anthony, J. C., Storr, C. L., & Rose, J. E. (2012). Smoking quit success genotype score predicts quit success and distinct patterns of developmental involvement with common addictive substances. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.155.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wagner, S., Baskaya, O., Dahmen, N., Lieb, K., & Tadić, A. (2010). Modulatory role of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism on the effects of serious life events on impulsive aggression in borderline personality disorder. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 9, 97–102. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2009.00539.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar