Skip to main content

Early Initiatives for Children at Risk—Development of a Program for the Prevention and Treatment of Behavior Problems in Primary Services

Abstract

During the past decade, Norwegian authorities have initiated and funded a project to scale up the use of evidence-based programs for the prevention and treatment of conduct problems in children. The first step in this process was to increase treatment competence by implementing the Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO) in specialist services for children. The second step was to develop the program Early Initiatives for Children at Risk (Norwegian acronym, TIBIR), designed to identify children with possible conduct problems as early as possible and to offer tailored interventions as part of the ordinary primary services for children in individual municipalities. The theoretical rationale and practical considerations leading to the design of TIBIR are presented, together with the program modules and current research activities. Some of the challenges concerning the program’s ability to reach various risk groups are discussed, as are the challenges encountered regarding quality assurance and fidelity maintenance. Finally, some future research questions are presented and discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnoski, T., & Aos, S. (2004). Outcome evaluations of Washington state’s research-based program for juvenile offenders. Washington: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berry, J. O., & Jones, W. H. (1995). The parental stress scale — initial psychometric evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 463–472.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bierman, K. L., Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Lochman, J. E., & Mcmahon, R. J. (1992). A developmental and clinical-model for the prevention of conduct disorder — the fast-track-program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Biglan, A., Metzler, C. W., & Ary, D. V. (1994). Increasing the prevalence of successful children — the case for community intervention research. Behavior Analyst, 2, 335–351.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bjorknes, B., & Manger, T. (in press). Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children?

  • Bjorknes, R., Jakobsen, R., & Naerde, A. (2011). Recruiting ethnic minority groups to evidence-based parent training. Who will come and how? Children and Youth Services Review, 2, 351–357. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.09.019.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3, 133–148. doi:10.1177/1098300709334798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., March, C. L., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1994). Hard-to-manage preschool boys — symptomatic behavior across contexts and time. Child Development, 3, 836–851.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeGarmo, D. S., Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (2004). How do outcomes in a specified parent training intervention maintain or wane over time? Prevention Science, 2, 73–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). The development and ecology of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Choen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 3, pp. 503–541). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Connell, A., Gardner, F., Weaver, C., & Wilson, M. (2008). The family check-up with high-risk indigent families: Preventing problem behavior by increasing parents’ positive behavior support in early childhood. Child Development, 5, 1395–1414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Drugli, M. B., & Larsson, B. (2006). Children aged 4–8 years treated with parent training and child therapy because of conduct problems: generalisation effects to day-care and school settings. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 392–399. doi:10.1007/s00787-006-0546-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eyberg, S. M., & Pincus, D. (1999). The Eyberg child inventory and the Sutter-Eybergn Student behavior inventory: Professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Asessment Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5, 711–724.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2011). Sustaining fidelity following the nationwide PMTO (TM) implementation in Norway. Prevention Science, 3, 235–246. doi:10.1007/s11121-011-0225-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., & Martinez, C. R., Jr. (1999). Parent management training: A program linking basic research and practical application. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 10, 923–937.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., & Patterson, G. R. (2010). Parent management training - Oregon model. An intervention for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evicence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Forgatch, M. S., Patterson, G. R., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2005). Evaluating fidelity: Predictive validity for a measure of competent adherence to the Oregon model of parent management training. Behavior Therapy, 1, 3–13. doi:10.1016/s0005-7894(05)80049-8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner, F., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Burton, J., & Supplee, L. (2007). Randomized prevention trial for early conduct problems: Effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 3, 398–406. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.3.398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R., & Arthur, M. W. (2002). Promoting science-based prevention in communities. Addictive Behaviors, 6, 951–976.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hoagwood, K., & Koretz, D. (1996). Embedding prevention services within systems of care: Strengthening the nexus for children. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4, 225–234.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ingoldsby, E. M., Kohl, G. O., McMahon, R. J., & Lengua, L. (2006). Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 603–621. doi:10.1007/s10802-006-9044-9.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kjøbli, J., & Ogden, T. (2009). Gender differences in intake characteristics and behavior change among children in families receiving parent management training. Children and Youth Services Review, 8, 823–830. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.03.004.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kjøbli, J., & Ogden, T. (2012). A randomized effectiveness trial of brief parent training in primary care settings. Prevention Science. doi:10.1007/s11121-012-0289.

  • Kjøbli, J., & Sørlie, M. A. (2008). School outcomes of a community-wide intervention model aimed at preventing problem behavior. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 4, 365–375. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00648.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kjøbli, J., Bjørknes, R., & Askeland, E. (2012). Adherence to brief parent training as a predictor of parent and child outcomes in real-world settings. Journal of Children’s Services, 3, 165–177. doi:10.1108/17466661211261352.

  • McMahon, R. J., Wells, K. C., & Kotler, J. S. (2006). Conduct problems. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment og childhood disorders (3rd ed., pp. 137–270). New York: Guildford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limeted antisocial behavior. In D. Ciccetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology. Risk, disorder and adaptation. (Second ed., Vol. 3, pp. 570–598). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

  • Nixon, R. D. V. (2002). Treatment of behavior problems in preschoolers: A review of parent training programs. Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 525–546.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norwegian Board of Health Supervision. (1998). Undersøkelser i helsestasjons- og skolehelsetjenesten [Investingations on public health centers and school health service]) (pp. 4–98). Oslo: Norwegian Board of Health Supervision.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogden, T., & Hagen, K. A. (2008). Treatment effectiveness of parent management training in Norway: A randomized controlled trial of children with conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 607–621. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.76.4.607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ogden, T., Forgatch, M. S., Askeland, E., Patterson, G. R., & Bullock, B. M. (2005). Implementation of parent management training at the national level: The case of Norway. Journal of Social Work Practice, 3, 317–329. doi:10.1080/02650530500291518.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process (Vol. 3). Eugene: Castalia Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, G. R., & Yoerger, K. L. (2002). A developmental model for early- and late-onset delinquency. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 147–172). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., Yoerger, K. L., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early-onset trajectory for juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 531–547.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanders, M. R., Markie-Dadds, C., Tully, L. A., & Bor, W. (2000). The triple P-positive parenting program: A comparison of enhanced, standard, and self-directed behavioral family intervention for parents of children with early onset conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 624–640. doi:10.1037//002-006x.68.4.624.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schuhmann, E. M., Foote, R. C., Eyberg, S. M., Boggs, S. R., & Algina, J. (1998). Efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy: Interim report of a randomized trial with short-term maintenance. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 34–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, J. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1995). Individual-differences in social aggression — a test of a reinforcement model of socialization in the natural-environment. Behavior Therapy, 2, 371–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, J., Horsch, E., & Childs, J. (1997). Peer relationships of young children: Affiliative choices and the shaping of aggressive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 2, 145–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Solholm, R., & Jakobsen, R. (2009). Atferdsvansker- kortvarig foreldrerådgiving og lærerkonsultasjon i arbeidet med atferdsvansker blandt barn- modellutvikling i en kommune [Behavior problems- brief parent training and teacher consultation - development of a model in a municipality ]. Norges Barnevern, 1, 4–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solholm, R., Askeland, E., Christiansen, T., & Ducker, M. (2005). Parent management training - Oregon-modellen: Teori, behandlingsprogram og implementering i Norge [Parent management training - the Oregon model: Key theoretical concepts, the treatment program and its implementation in Norway]. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 7, 587–597.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sorlie, M. A., & Ogden, T. (2007). Immediate impacts of PALS: A school-wide multi-level programme targeting behaviour problems in elementary school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 5, 471–492. doi:10.1080/00313830701576581.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spoth, R. L., Kavanagh, K. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2002). Family-centered preventive intervention science: Toward benefits to larger populations of children, youth, and families. Prevention Science, 3, 145–152.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Turner, K. M. T., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Dissemination of evidence-based parenting and family support strategies: Learning from the triple P — positive parenting program system approach. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 2, 176–193. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.07.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Webster, C.-D., Augimeri, L.-K., & Koegl, C.-J. (2002). The under 12 outreach project for antisocial boys: A research based clinical program multi-problem violent youth: A foundation for comparative research on needs, intervention, and outcomes (pp. 207–218). Amsterdam: Ios Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Webster-Stratton, C., & Herbert, M. (1994). Troubled families-problem children: Working with parents: A collaborative process. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weisz, J. R., & Gray, J. S. (2008). Evidence-based psychotherapy for children and adolescents: Data from the present and a model for the future. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2, 54–65. doi:10.1111/j.1475-3588.2007.00475.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeiner, P., Bache-Hansen, E., Eskeland, S., Ogden, T., Rypdal, P., & Sommerschild, H. (1998). Barn og unge med alvorlige atferdsvansker. (Children and youth with serious behavior problems). Oslo: The Norwegian Research Council.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roar Solholm.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Solholm, R., Kjøbli, J. & Christiansen, T. Early Initiatives for Children at Risk—Development of a Program for the Prevention and Treatment of Behavior Problems in Primary Services. Prev Sci 14, 535–544 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0334-x

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0334-x

Keywords

  • Conduct problems
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Primary Services