A randomized prevention study for ethnic minority mothers assessed the intervention effects of Parent Management Training—Oregon Model (PMTO) on maternal parent practices and child behavior. Ninety-six mothers from Somalia and Pakistan and their children aged 3 to 9 years were randomized to PMTO or a wait-list condition (WLC). Assessments were carried out at the baseline and post-intervention, using standardized measures and a multi-agent approach. All analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that PMTO was effective in enhancing parent practices, with a decrease in harsh discipline and an increase in positive parenting. Moreover, PMTO produced reductions in motherreported child conduct problems. The largest effect sizes were found among mothers who attended more than 50 % of the PMTO group sessions. Teacher reports showed, however, that there were no significant intervention effects on conduct problems and social competence in kindergarten or school. The results emphasize the importance and feasibility of offering PMTO to ethnic minority families.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
Bjørknes, R., Jakobsen, R., & Nærde, A. (2011). Recruiting ethnic minority groups to evidence-based parent training. Who will come and how? Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 351–357.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216.
Brestan, E. V., & Eyberg, S. M. (1998). Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 27, 180–189.
Castro, F. G., Barrera, M., Jr., & Martinez, C. R., Jr. (2004). The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: Resolving tensions between fidelity and fit. Prevention Science, 5, 41–45.
Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1987). Parent observation and report of child symptoms. Behavioral Assessment, 9, 97–109.
Cohen, J. (1969). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1996). Physical discipline among African American and European American mothers: Links to children’s externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 1065–1072.
DeGarmo, D. S., & Forgatch, M. S. (2005). Early development of delinquency within divorced families: Evaluating a randomized preventive intervention trial. Developmental Science, 8, 229–239.
Dishion, T. J., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Age effects in parent training outcome. Behavior Therapy, 23, 719–729.
Drugli, M. B., & Larsson, B. (2010). Psykisk helse blant norske skolebarn i 1.-7. klasse. [Mental health among Norwegian school children]. Spesialpedagogikk, 3, 4–11.
Elliott, D. S., & Mihalic, S. (2004). Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prevention Science, 5, 47–53.
Eyberg, S., & Pincus, D. (1999). Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised. Professional manual. FL: PAR.
Flock, M. C., & Pettersen, R. E. (2008). Mater et magistra; Handbook of PMTO for Somali and Pakistani mothers. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development.
Forgatch, M. S., & DeGarmo, D. S. (1999). Parenting through change: An effective prevention program for single mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 711–724.
Forgatch, M. S., Patterson, G. R., DeGarmo, D. S., & Beldavs, Z. G. (2009). Testing the Oregon delinquency model with 9-year follow-up of the Oregon Divorce Study. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 637–660.
Forgatch, M. S., & Patterson, G. R. (2010). Parent Management Training—Oregon Model: An intervention for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 159–178). New York: Guilford.
Granic, I., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). Toward a comprehensive model of antisocial development: A dynamic systems approach. Psychological Review, 113, 101–131.
Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Griner, D., & Smith, T. B. (2006). Culturally adapted mental health interventions: A meta-analytic review. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43, 531–548.
Gross, D., Garvey, C., Julion, W., Fogg, L., Tucker, S., & Mokros, H. (2009). Efficacy of the Chicago Parent Program with low-income African American and Latino parents of young children. Prevention Science, 10, 54–65.
Higgins, J.P.T., Deeks, J.J., Altman, D.G. (2009). Chapter 16: Special topics in statistics. In: J. P. Higgins & J. Green (Eds.), Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Version 5.0.2. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Huey, S. J., & Polo, A. J. (2010). Assessing the effects of evidence-based psychotherapies with ethnic minority youths. In J. R. Weisz & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 451–465). New York: Guilford.
Holm-Hansen, J., Haaland, T., & Myrvold, T. (2007). Flerkulturelt barnvern. En kunnskapsoversikt. [Multi-cultural child welfare. A review of the research literature]. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR).
Kumpfer, K. L., Alvarado, R., Smith, P., & Bellamy, N. (2002). Cultural sensitivity and adaptation in family-based prevention interventions. Prevention Science, 3, 241–246.
Lau, A. S. (2006). Making the case for selective and directed cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments: Examples from parent training. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13, 295–310.
Lillehaug, T. (2007). Utprøving av strategier og tiltak for rekruttering av foreldre med etnisk minoritetsbakgrunn til et PMTO-gruppetiltak. [Investigating strategies to recruit parents with ethnic minority background to PMTO]. Norway, Oslo: Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development.
Lubrecht, J. (1992). Family satisfaction survey. In K. Kutash & T. R. Rivera (Eds.), Measures of satisfaction with child mental health services. Florida Mental Health Institute, University of South Florida (pp. 21–23).
Lundahl, B., Risser, H. J., & Lovejoy, M. C. (2006). A meta-analysis of parent training: Moderators and follow-up effects. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 86–104.
Martinez, C. R., Jr., & Eddy, E. (2005). Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 841–851.
Martinez, C. R., Jr., & Forgatch, M. S. (2001). Preventing problems with boys’ noncompliance: Effects of a parent training intervention for divorcing mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 416–428.
McGaw, B., & Glass, G. V. (1980). Choice of the metric for effects size in meta-analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 325–337.
Munkvold, L., Lundervold, A., Lie, S. A., & Manger, T. (2009). Should there be separate parent and teacher-based categories of ODD? Evidence from a general population. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1264–1277.
Ogden, T. (2003). The validity of teacher ratings of adolescents’ social skills. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47, 63–76.
Ogden, T., & Amlund-Hagen, K. A. (2008). Treatment effectiveness of parent management training in Norway: A randomized controlled trial of children with conduct problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 607–621.
Patterson, G. (2005). The next generation of PMTO models. the Behavior Therapist, 28, 25–32.
Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of a parent-training program. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638–650.
Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). A social interactional approach: Vol. 4. Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Company.
Reedtz, C., Bertelsen, B., Lurie, J., Handegård, B. H., Clifford, G., & Mørch, W.-T. (2008). Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI): Norwegian norms to identify conduct problems in children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 31–38.
Reid, M. J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2001). Parent training in Head Start: A comparison of program response among African American, Asian American, Caucasian, and Hispanic mothers. Prevention Science, 2, 209–227.
Statistics Norway (2010). Immigration and immigrants. [On-line]. Retrieved February 16, 2010, from http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/00/00/10/innvandring_en/
Statistics Norway (2011). Many new European immigrants. [On-line]. Retrieved May 6, 2011, from http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/02/01/10/innvbef_en/
Webster-Stratton, C. (1998). Parent Practices Interview. [On-line]. Retrieved August 15, 2007, from http://son.washington.edu/centers/parenting-clinic
Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (1997). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: A comparison of child and parent training interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 93–109.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 105–124.
Weisz, J. R., & Kazdin, A. E. (2010). Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.
We are grateful to the following people who participated in extensive work related to the study: Monica Flock, Ragnhild Pettersen, Begoña Gomez, Sissel Torsvik, Mona Kristin Bratli, Oddbjørg Holten, Elisabeth Askeland, Terje Ogden and Reidar Jakobsen. Our special thanks go to the families, agencies, and interventionists for their contribution to this study.
About this article
Cite this article
Bjørknes, R., Manger, T. Can Parent Training Alter Parent Practice and Reduce Conduct Problems in Ethnic Minority Children? A Randomized Controlled Trial. Prev Sci 14, 52–63 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0299-9
- Ethnic minority children
- Preventing conduct problems