LateNight Penn State Alcohol-Free Programming: Students Drink Less on Days They Participate
Despite the public health importance of alcohol-free social programs for college students, the majority of existing campus strategies have not been empirically evaluated. This study utilized repeated daily reports to examine the association between attendance at campus-led alcohol-free programming and alcohol use on specific days while controlling for individuals’ typical rates of use. The current study assessed students’ participation in the LateNight Penn State (LNPS) alcohol-free programming and amount of alcohol use at a daily level, in order to determine whether students consumed less alcohol on days they attended LNPS compared to weekend days they did not attend. First-year college students reported their daily social activity involvement and alcohol use via 14 consecutive daily web-based surveys. Multilevel regression analyses modeled variation in alcohol use on weekend days (N = 3,350) nested within people (N = 689 people, 51% women). Analyses focused on within-individual differences between nights attending and not attending LNPS, thereby controlling for stable individual differences, measured and unmeasured. Results indicated that students drank less on days they attended LNPS and on days they stayed in (rather than going to bars/parties, other campus events, or entertainment), both especially among women. These results suggest that alcohol-free social programs may be an effective strategy for decreasing alcohol use on days when students attend alcohol-free events rather than going to other events or gatherings.
- Allison, P. (2005). Fixed effects regression methods for longitudinal data using SAS. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
- Bachman, J. G., Johnston, L. D., & O'Malley, P. M. (2008). Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire responses from the nation's high school seniors, 2006. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. 390 pp.Google Scholar
- Bryk, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- DeJong, W., & Langford, L. M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving toward environmental management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Suppl 14, 140–147.Google Scholar
- Flay, B. R., & Petraitis, J. (1994). The Theory of Triadic Influence: A new theory of health behavior with implications for preventive interventions. Advances in Medical Sociology, 4, 19–44.Google Scholar
- Maney, D. W., Mortensen, S., Harlow, J., Powell, M. P., Moore, B., Lozinska-Lee, M., et al. (2002a). Alcohol-free options for university students: The LateNight Penn State program. American Journal of Health Education, 33, 245–248.Google Scholar
- Maney, D. W., Mortensen, S., Powell, M. P., Lozinska-Lee, M., Kennedy, S., & Moore, B. (2002b). Alcohol-free alternative activities for university students: Modeling associated drinking behavior. American Journal of Health Education, 33, 225–233.Google Scholar
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force. (2002). A call to action: Changing the culture of drinking at U.S. colleges. National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available online December 8, 2008 at: http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/NIAAACollegeMaterials/TaskForce/TaskForce_TOC.aspx.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (2003). Task Force on Recommended Alcohol Questions - National Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism recommended sets of alcohol consumption questions - October 15–16, 2003. Available online December 8, 2008 at: http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/Resources/ResearchResources/TaskForce.htm.
- Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 45–64). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Penn State Student Affairs. (2002). Penn State Pulse: Late Night Penn State 2002. Available online December 8, 2008 at http://www.latenight.psu.edu/i_assessment.shtml.
- Perkins, H. W. (2002). Surveying the damage: A review of research on consequences of alcohol misuse in college populations. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Suppl 14, 91–100.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Teng, S. (2006). LateNight-PennState: Spring 2006 marketing survey report. Unpublished report. Available online December 8, 2008 at http://www.latenight.psu.edu/i_assessment.shtml.
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, & Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. (2007). Experiences in effective prevention: The US Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention models on college campuses grants. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar