Aaron, D. J., Dearwater, S. R. Anderson, R., Olsen, T., Kriska, A. M., & Laporte, R. E. (1995). Physical activity and the initiation of high-risk health behaviors in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(12), 1639–1645.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.
Amos, A., Currie, C., Gray, D., et al. (1998). Perception of fashion images from youth magazines: does a cigarette make a difference? Health Education Research, 13, 491–501.
Arthur, M. W., Hawkins, J. F., Pollard, J. A., Catalano, R. F., & Baglioni, A. J., Jr. (2002). Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency, and other adolescent problem behaviors. Evaluation Review, 26(6), 575–601.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Thorofare, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baumert, P. W., Jr., Henderson, J. M., & Thompson, N. J. (1998). Health risk behaviors of adolescent participants in organized sports. Journal Adolescent Health, 22, 460–465.
Becker, M. (1974). The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior. Thorofare, NH: Charles B. Slack, Inc.
Booth-Butterfield, M. (2003). Embedded health behaviors from adolescence to adulthood: The impact of tobacco. Health Communication, 15(2), 173–186.
Botvin, G. J., Baker, E., Botvin, E., Filazzola, A., & Millman, R. (1984). Prevention of alcohol misuse through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 550–552.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). CDC Surveillance Summaries, June 28, 2002. MMWR, 51(No. SS-4).
Channing L. Bete Co., Inc. (1992). What everyone should know ABOUT WELLNESS [Brochure]. South Deerfield, MA: Channing L. Bete Co., Inc.
Connors, G. J., & Walitzer, K. S. (2001). Reducing alcohol consumption among heavily-drinking women: Evaluating the contributions of life skills training and booster sessions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 447–456.
Diclemente, C. C., Schlundt, D., & Gemmell, L. (2004). Readiness and Stages of change in addiction treatment. The American Journal of Addiction, 13, 103–119.
Dryfoos, J. G. (1991). Adolescents at risk: A summation of work in the filed: programs and policies. Journal Adolescent Health, 12(8), 630–637.
Durlak, J. A. (1998). Common risk and protective factors in successful prevention programs. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(4), 512–520.
Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 10–43.
Eggert, L. L., Thompson, E. A., Herting, J. R., Nicholas, L. J., & Dicker, B. G. (1994). Preventing adolescent drug abuse and high school dropout through an intensive school-based social network development program. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(3), 202–215.
Ellickson, P. L., & Hays, R. D. (1991). Beliefs about resistance self-efficacy and drug prevalence: do they really affect drug use? International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 1353–1378.
Ennett, S. T., Kingwalt, C. L., Thorne, J., et al. (2003). A Comparison of current practice in school-based substance abuse prevention programs with meta-analysis findings. Prevention Science, 4(1), 1–14.
Flay, B. R. (2003). Positive youth development is necessary and possible. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk (pp. 347–354). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C. E. (2001). Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105–110.
Fox, R., Krugman, D. M., Fletcher, J. E., & Fischer, P. M. (1998). Adolescents' attention to beer and cigarette print ads and associated product warnings. Journal of Advertising, 27(3), 57–68.
Gray, D., Amos, A., & Currie, C. (1997). Decoding the image = Consumption, young people, magazines and smoking. An exploration of theoretical and methodological issues. Health Education Research, 12(4), 505–517.
Grunbaum, J., Kann, L., Kinchen, S. A., et al. (2002). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States. Journal School Health, 72(8), 313–328.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of Delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Johnson, C., Pentz, M., Weber, M., et al. (1990). Relative effectiveness of comprehensive community programs for drug abuse prevention with high and low risk adolescents. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 58, 447–456.
Kanfer, F. (1975). Self-management methods. In F. Kanfer & A. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods. New York: Pergamon.
Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Rubin, B. R., et al. (1983). Paths leading to teenage psychiatric symptoms and substance use: developmental epidemiological studies in Woodlawn. In S. B. Guze, F. J. Earls, & J. E. Barrett (Eds.), Childhood psychopathology and development (pp. 17–51). New York: Raven.
Kirkcaldy, B. D., Shephard, R. J., & Siefen, R. G. (2002). The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behavior among adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 544–550.
Mahler, H. M., Fitzpatrick, B., Parker, P., et al. (1997). The relative effects of a health-based versus an appearance-based intervention designed to increase sunscreen use. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11(6), 426–429.
Mahler, H. M., Kulik, J. A., Gibbons, et al. (2003). Effects of appearance-based interventions on sun protection intentions and self-reported behaviors. Health Psychology, 22(2), 199–209.
Masih, K. G. (1993). For teens only: Staying healthy and fit. Plainview, NY: The Bureau For At-Risk Youth; Pamphlet.
Melnick, M. J., Miller, K. E., Sabo, D. F., et al. (2001). Tobacco use among high school athletes and non-athletes: Results of the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adolescence, 36, 727–747.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2003). Underage drinking: A major public health challenge. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Alcohol Alert No. 59.
Nigg, C. R., Allegrante, J. P., & Ory, M. (2002). Theory-comparison and multiple-behavior research: common themes advancing health behavior research. Health Education Research, 17(5), 670–679.
Page, R. M., Hammermeister, J., Scanlan, A., & Gilbert, L. (1998). Is school sports participation a protactive factor against adolescent health risk behaviors? Journal of Health Education, 29, 186–192.
Pate, R. R., Heath, G. W., Dowda, M., & Trost, S. G. (1996). Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 1577–1581.
Prochaska, J., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390–395.
Rainey, C. J., McKeown, R. E. Sargent, R. C., & Valois, R. F. (1996). Patterns of tobacco and alcohol use among sedentary, exercising, non-athletic youth. Journal School of Health, 66, 27–32.
Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Youth development programs and healthy development. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk (pp. 355–365). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rothman, A. J., & Salovey, P. (1997). Shaping perceptions to motivate health behavior: the role of message framing. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 3–19.
Shimp, T. A. (2000). Advertising, promotion, and supplemental aspects of integrated marketing communications (5th ed.). Fort Worth TX:Dryden.
Slovic, P., Fincuane, M. L., Peters, E., et al. (2002). The affect heuristic. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment (pp. 397–420). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stanton, B. F., & Burnes, J. (2003). Sustaining and broadening intervention effect: social norms, core values, and parents. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk (pp. 193–200). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2003). Results from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services; Publication No. SMA 03-3836.
Tait, R. J., & Hulse, G. K. (2003). A systematic review of the effectiveness of brief interventions with substance using adolescents by type of drug. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22, 337–346.
The Women's Sports Foundation. Health risks and the teen athlete (2001). Available from http:www.womenssportsfoundation.org. [accessed 2002 July 29]
Wallace J. M., Jr., & Bachman, J. G. (1993). Validity of self-reports in student based studies on minority populations: issues and concerns. In M. R. De La Rosa & J. R. Adrados (Eds.), Drug abuse among minority youth: Advances in research and methodology (pp. 167–200). Rockville, MD; NIDA Research Monograph.
Werch, C. (2001). Preventive alcohol interventions based on a stage of acquisition model. American Journal of Health Behavior, 3, 206–216.
Werch, C., Anzalone, D., Brokiewicz, L., Felker, J., Carlson, J., & Castellon-Vogel, E. (1996a). An intervention for preventing alcohol use among inner-city middle school students. Archives of Family Medicine, 5, 146–152.
Werch, C., Carlson, J., Pappas, D., & DiClemente, C. C. (1996b). Brief nurse consultations for preventing alcohol use among urban school youth. Journal of School Health, 66(9), 335–338.
Werch, C. E. (2000). The Youth Alcohol and Health Survey. Jacksonville, FL: University of North Florida. Center for Drug Prevention Research.
Werch, C. E., Carlson, J. M., Pappas, D. M., Edgemon, P., & DiClemente, C. C. (2000). Effects of a brief alcohol preventive intervention for youth attending school sports physical examinations. Substance Use and Misuse, 35(3), 421–432.
Werch, C. E., Carlson, J. M., Pappas, D. M., Edgemon, P., & DiClemente, C. (2002). A brief alcohol preventive intervention for student athletes. The Prevention Researcher, 9(3), 4–5. (Condensed from)
Werch, C. E., & DiClemente, C. C. (1994). A multi-component stage model for matching drug prevention strategies and messages to youth stage of use. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 9(1), 37–46.
Werch, C. E., Meers, B. W., & Farrell, J. (1993). Stages of drug use acquisition among college students: Implications for prevention of drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education, 23(4), 375–386.
Werch, C. E., Moore, M., DiClemente, C. C., et al. (2003a). A sport-based intervention for preventing alcohol use and promoting physical activity among adolescents. Journal School of Health, 73(10), 380–388.
Werch, C. E., Owen, D., Carlson, J. M., DiClemente, C. C., et al. (2003b). One-year follow-up results of the STARS for Families alcohol prevention program. Health Education Research, 18(1), 74–87.
Williams, C., Toomey, T., McGovern, P., et al. (1995). Development, reliability, and validity of self-report alcohol-use measures with young adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 4(3), 17–39.
Wills, T. A., & Cleary, S. D. (1997). The validity of self-reports of smoking: analysis by race/ethnicity in a school sample of urban adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 56–61.
Winnail, S. D., Valois, R. F., McKeown, R. E., Saunders, R. P., & Pate, R. R. (1995). Relationship between physical activity level and cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and marijuana use among public high school adolescents. Journal School of Health, 65(10), 438–443.