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A guide to Open-JIP, a low-cost open-source chlorophyll fluorometer


Chlorophyll a fluorescence is the most widely used method to study photosynthesis and plant stress. While several commercial fluorometers are available, there is a need for a low-cost and highly customisable chlorophyll fluorometer. Such a device would aid in performing high-throughput assessment of photosynthesis, as these instruments can be mass-produced. Novel investigations into photosynthesis can also be performed as a result of the user’s ability to modify the devices functionality for their specific needs. Motivated by this, we present an open-source chlorophyll fluorometer based on the Kautsky induction curve (OJIP). The instrument consists of low-cost, easy-to-acquire electrical components and an open-source microcontroller (Arduino Mega) whose performance is equivalent to that of commercial instruments. Two 3D printable Open-JIP configurations are presented, one for higher plants and the other for microalgae cells in suspension. Directions for its construction are presented and the instrument is benchmarked against widely used commercial chlorophyll fluorometers.

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Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II


Data acquisition device


Pulse amplitude modulated


Feedback resistor


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Shawn Price and Leen Labeeuw for their work editing the manuscript. Jim Franklin for his consultation during the early stages in the construction of Open-JIP.

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Correspondence to Alonso Zavafer.

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Bates, H., Zavafer, A., Szabó, M. et al. A guide to Open-JIP, a low-cost open-source chlorophyll fluorometer. Photosynth Res 142, 361–368 (2019).

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  • Chlorophyll a fluorescence
  • OJIP
  • Chlorella vulgaris
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Fluorometer
  • Open-source