Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta)
There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L−1) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L−1) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L−1 for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L−1 for the other two species). Moreover, species–specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L−1 for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L−1 for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.
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This work was supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (2012AA10A411), the National Special Research Fund for the Non-Profit Marine Sector (201105021-8), and the Technology Innovation Program of Shandong Province (2013CXC80202).
This study was funded by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant number 2012AA10A411), the National Special Research Fund for the Non-Profit Marine Sector (Grant number 201105021-8), and the Technology Innovation Program of Shandong Province (Grant number 2013CXC80202). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All samples used in this study were macroalgae and thus did not involve ethical issues.
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