Advertisement

Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 105, Issue 1, pp 27–37 | Cite as

Selenium-induced protection of photosynthesis activity in rape (Brassica napus) seedlings subjected to cadmium stress. Fluorescence and EPR measurements

  • Maria FilekEmail author
  • Janusz Kościelniak
  • Maria Łabanowska
  • Elżbieta Bednarska
  • Ewa Bidzińska
Regular Paper

Abstract

Fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements were used to study selenium influence on photosystem activity in rape seedlings affected by Cd stress. Water cultures containing Hoagland nutrients were supplemented with 400 μM of CdCl2, 2 μM of Na2SeO4 and a mixture of both CdCl2 and Na2SeO4. The seedlings were cultured till the first leaf reached about 1 cm in length. Cadmium-induced changes in the activity of both photosystems were partly diminished by Se presence in the nutrient medium. Electron microscopy photographs confirmed less degradation in chloroplasts of plants cultured on media containing Se. It is suggested that sucrose groups of starch, which is deposited in greater amounts in Cd-stressed plants, may act as traps for free radicals produced under those conditions.

Keywords

Fluorescence EPR Photosystems Cadmium Selenium Rape plants 

Abbreviations

A

Constant of hyperfine splitting (HFS)

ABS/CS

Light energy absorbed by leaf cross-section (CS).

DFT

Density-functional theory

ETo/ABS

Probability that an absorbed photon will move an electron into the electron transport chain

ETo/CS

Quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport chain after QA per CS

ETo/TRo

Efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move an electron into the electron transport chain

Fm

Fluorescence with all PSII reaction centres closed in light-exposed leaves

Fo

Fluorescence in leaves previously exposed to light, darkened just before measurement

Fs

Steady-state fluorescence in light-exposed leaves

Fv′/Fm

PS2 antenna trapping efficiency

Fv

Variable fluorescence in light-adapted leaves (Fv′ = Fm′ − Fo′)

g

Values of g tensor

NPQ

Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence

OEC

Fraction of O2 evolving centres PS2 in comparison with the control sample

PI(CS)

Performance index, defined on a cross section (CS) basis

PPFD

Photosynthetic photon flux density

PS2

Photosystem II

*QA

The first stable electron acceptor in PS2

qP

Photochemical quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence

RC/CS

Number of active reaction centres (RC) in the state of fully reduced PS2 RC

Sm

The working integral of the energy needed to close all RCs

Sm/tFmax

Expresses the average (av) redox state (QA /QA) in the time span from 0 to Fmax and therefore, the average fraction of open (op) RC during the time needed to complete the closure (cl) of all the RC; Sm/t Fmax = [RCop/(RCcl + RCop)]av

TRo/ABS

Maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry

TRo/CS

Quantum yield of primary photochemistry (from RC to QA) per CS

ΦPS2

Quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry

References

  1. Abagyan GV, Apresyan AS (2002) Reaction routes of free radicals in γ-irradiated α-D-glucose. High Energy Chem 36:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angerhofer A, Bittl R (1996) Radical and radical pairs in photosynthesis. Photochem Photobiol 63:11–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Che M, Tench AJ (1983) Characterisation and reactivity of oxygen on oxide surfaces. Part II. Molecular oxygen species. AERE, Harwell, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  4. Debus RJ, Feler G, Okamura MY (1986) Iron-depleted reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26.1: characterization and reconstitution with Fe2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+. Biochemistry 25:2276–2287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dyrek K, Bidzińska E, Łabanowska M, Fortuna T, Przetaczek I, Pietrzyk S (2007) EPR study of radicals generated in starch by microwaves or by conventional heating. Starch/Stärke 59:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Filek M, Keskinen R, Hartikainen H, Szarejko I, Janiak A, Miszalski Z, Golda A (2008) The protective role of selenium in rape seedlings subjected to cadmium stress. J Plant Physiol 165:833–844CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Filek M, Zembala M, Hartikainen H, Mieszalski Z, Kornaś A, Wietecka-Posłuszny R, Walas P (2009) Changes in wheat plastid membrane properties induced by cadmium and selenium in presence/absence of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult 96:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Flores CJ, Cabrera EB, Calderón T, Muñoz EP, Adem E, Hernández JA, Boldú JL, Ovalle PM, Murrieta HS (2000) ESR and optical absorption studies of gamma- and electron-irradiated sugar crystals. Appl Radiat Isot 52:1229–1234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Genty B, Briantais J-M, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochim Biophys Acta 990:87–92Google Scholar
  10. Gräslund A, Löfroth G (1975) Free radicals in gamma-irradiated single crystals of trehalose dihydrate and sucrose studied by electron paramagnetic resonance. Acta Chim Scand B 29:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1938) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 347, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishikita H, Knapp E-W (2005) Induced conformational changes upon Cd2+ binding at photosynthetic reaction centers. PNAS 102:16215–16220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Janzen EG, Wang YY, Shetty RV (1978) Spin trapping with α-pyridyl 1-oxide N-tert-butyl nitrones in aqueous solutions. A unique electron spin resonance spectrum for the hydroxyl radical adduct. J Am Chem Soc 100:2923–2925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Käss H, Fromme P, Witt HT, Lubisz W (2001) Orientation and electronic structure of the primary donor radical cation P700+• in photosystem I: a single crystals EPR and ENDOR study. J Phys Chem B 105:1225–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumagai J, Katoh H, Miyazaki T, Hidema J, Kumagai T (1999) Differences in the sensitivity to UVB radiation of two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) based on observation of long-lived radicals. J Radiat Res 40:303–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kuzuya M, Yamauchi Y, Kondo S (1999) Mechanolysis of glucose-based polysaccharides as studied by electron spin resonance. J Phys Chem 103:8051–8059Google Scholar
  17. Lazar D, Pospisil P (1999) Mathematical simulation of chlorophyll a fluorescence rise measured with 3-(3′,4′-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea-treated barley leaves at room and high temperatures. Eur Biophys J 28:468–477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lazarus M, Orct T, Blanusa M, Kostial K, Pirsljin J, Beer-Ljubic B (2006) Effect of selenium pre-treatment on cadmium content and enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of suckling rat. Toxicol Lett 164:191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lichtenthaler HK, Buschmann C, Knapp M (2005) How to correctly determine the different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and the chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio RFd of leaves with the PAM fluorometer. Photosynthesis 43:379–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lozos GP, Hoffman BM, Franz CG (2000) SIM 14 Program. Chemistry Department, Northwestern University, IL, QCPE, No. 265Google Scholar
  21. Madden KP, Bernhard WA (1979) ESR-ENDOR study of α-d-glucopyranose single crystals X irradiated at 12 and 77 K. J Phys Chem 83:2643–2649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Madden KP, Bernhard WA (1982) Thermally induced free radical reactions in α-d glucopyranose single crystals: an electron spin resonance-electron nuclear double resonance study. J Phys Chem 86:4033–4036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miyazaki T, Morikawa A, Kumagai J, Ikehata M, Koana T, Kikuchi S (2002) Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals cells and protein solution: their observation and inhomogeneous decay dynamics. Rad Phys Chem 65(2):151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Norris JR, Uphaus RA, Crespi HL, Katz JJ (1971) Electron spin resonance of chlorophyll and the origin of signal i in photosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:625–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Paddock M, Feler G, Okamura M (2003) Proton transfer pathways and mechanism in bacterial reaction centers. FEBS Lett 555:45–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Parson WW (1987) The bacterial reaction center. In: Amesz J (ed) Photosynthesis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 43–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pauwels E, Lahorte P, Vanhaelewyn G, Callens F, De Proft F, Geerlings P, Waroquier M (2002) Tentative structures for the radiation-induced radicals in crystalline β-d-fructose using density functional theory. J Phys Chem A 106:12340–12348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pauwels E, Van Speybroeck V, Vanhaelewyn G, Callens F, Waroquier M (2004) DFT-EPR study of radiation-induced radicals in α-d-glucose. Int J Quant Chem 99:102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pauwels E, Van Speybroeck V, Waroquier M (2006) Radiation-induced radicals in α-d-glucose: comparing DFT cluster calculations with magnetic resonance experiments. Spectrochim Acta A63:795–801Google Scholar
  30. Pearce RB, Edwards PP, Green TL, Anderson PA, Fisher BJ, Carpenter TA, Hall LD (1997) Immobilized long-lived free radicals at the host pathogen interface in sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus L.). Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 50:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prisner TF, McDermott AE, Un S, Norris JR, Thurnauer MC, Griffin RG (1993) Measurement of the g-tensor of the P700+• signal from deuterated cyanocterial photosystem I particles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:9485–9488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Romero-Puertas MC, Rodríguez-Serrano M, Corpas FJ, Gomez M, del Rio LA, Sandalio LM (2004) Cadmium-induced subcellular accumulation of O2.− and H2O2 in pea leaves. Plant Cell Environ 27:1122–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sanakis Y, Petrouleas V, Diner BA (1994) Cyanide binding at the non-heme Fe2+ of the iron-quinone complex of photosystem II: at high concentrations, cyanine converts the Fe2+ from high (S = 2) to low (S = 0) spin. Biochem 33:9922–9928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sasai Y, Yamauchi Y, Kondo S, Kuzuya M (2004) Nature of mechanoradical formation of substituted celluloses as studied by electron spin resonance. Chem Pharm Bull 52:339–344CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shukla UC, Singh J, Joshu PC, Kakkar P (2003) Effect of bioaccumulation of cadmium on biomass productivity, essential trace elements, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and macromolecules of wheat seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 92:257–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Strasser BJ, Strasser RJ (1995) Measuring fast fluorescence transients to address environmental questions: the JIP test. In: Mathis P (ed) Photosynthesis: from light to biosphere. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 977–980Google Scholar
  37. Strasser RJ, Srivatava A, Tsimilli-Michael M (2000) The fluorescence transient as tool to characterize and screen photosynthetics samples. In: Yunus M, Pathre U, Mohanty P (eds) Probing photosynthesis: mechanism, regulation and adaptation. Taylor and Francis, Bristol, pp 445–483Google Scholar
  38. Tang J, Utschig LM, Poluektov O, Thurnauer MC (1999) Transient W-band EPR study of sequential electron transfer in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. J Phys Chem B 103:5145–5150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Utschig LM, Greenfield SR, Tang J, Laible PD, Thurnauer MC (1997) Influence of iron-removal procedures on sequential electron transfer in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers studied by transient EPR spectroscopy. Biochem 36:8548–8558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vanhaelewyn G, Sadlo J, Callens F, Mondelaers W, De Frenne D, Matthys P (2000) A decomposition study of the EPR spectrum of irradiated sucrose. Appl Radiat Isot 52:1221–1227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Wagner GJ (1993) Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv Agron 51:173–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamauchi Y, Sugito M, Kuzuya M (1999) Plasma induced free radicals of polycrystalline monocarbohydrates studies by electron spin resonance. Chem Pharm Bull 47:273–278Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Filek
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Janusz Kościelniak
    • 3
  • Maria Łabanowska
    • 4
  • Elżbieta Bednarska
    • 5
  • Ewa Bidzińska
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Plant PhysiologyPolish Academy of SciencesKrakowPoland
  2. 2.Institute of BiologyPedagogical UniversityKrakowPoland
  3. 3.Department of Plant PhysiologyAgriculture UniversityKrakowPoland
  4. 4.Faculty of ChemistryJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland
  5. 5.Institute of Cell BiologyM. Copernicus UniversityTorunPoland

Personalised recommendations