Knowledge and monitoring of the grapevine phenology during the season are important requirements for characterization of productive regions, climate change studies and planning of various production activities at the vine field scale. This work aims at studying the spatial variability of grapevine phenology at the within field scale. It was conducted on two fields, one of cv Cabernet Sauvignon of 1.56 ha and the other of cv Chardonnay of 1.66 ha, both located in Maule Valley, Chile. Within each vine field, a regular sampling grid was designed, to carry out weekly measurements of phenology and maturation. The main results show that there is a significant spatial variability in the phenological development and maturation at the within field scale for both fields. This variability is spatially organised and temporally stable from the beginning of the season (post-budburst) to harvest and over the years. A cluster analysis allowed us to define two clearly contrasted zones in terms of phenology and maturation in both fields, explained by the microclimate. The magnitude of difference between zones varied from 4 to 9 days depending on phenological stages and from 5 to 43 days for maturation. These differences are similar and comparable to that observed at larger scales or under scenarios of climate change. These results highlight the necessity to better take into account this variability to improve sampling and to base decisions of production activities (spraying, harvest, pruning, etc.) application on more relevant information. Further investigations should determine the environmental factors that determine the observed spatial variability.
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Coefficient of variation
Degree of spatial dependence
- ET0 :
Total soluble solids
TSS measured at days of the harvest
Mean correlation distance
- Pre-Ha 1:
TSS measured at 25 days before harvest
- Pre-Ha 2:
TSS measured at 12 days before harvest
Units of phenological scale
- Ps :
Current phenological stage
Range of variation
Temporal stability of the spatial variability
Kendall coefficient of concordance
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The authors of this paper wish to thank FONDECYT Project 11110137, National CONICYT Doctoral Fellowship 2013 N°21130504 and PIEI Program of Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change funded by the Universidad de Talca. Also, the authors would like to thank the support of the Chilean project CD-UBB 1203.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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Verdugo-Vásquez, N., Acevedo-Opazo, C., Valdés-Gómez, H. et al. Spatial variability of phenology in two irrigated grapevine cultivar growing under semi-arid conditions. Precision Agric 17, 218–245 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-015-9418-5
- Vitis vinifera
- Berry maturity
- Within field variability
- Temporal variability
- Management zones
- Climate change