Advertisement

Transportation

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 773–788 | Cite as

Bicycle mode share in China: a city-level analysis of long term trends

  • Zhibin Li
  • Wei Wang
  • Chen Yang
  • Haoyang Ding
Article

Abstract

In the past 15 years, cities in China have experienced big changes in socioeconomic and traffic conditions, resulting in a long term change in bicycle use. This study aims to quantify the changes in bicycle mode share in Chinese cities and explore the potential causes. Based on data from 51 cities, it is found that bicycle mode share at the city level decreased gradually in the past. Conventional bicycle mode share decreased with a rate of 3 % per year, but electric bicycle mode share increased with a rate of 2 % per year. The correlations between city features such as demographics and built environments and bicycle mode share at different city sizes are compared. The generalized linear models are estimated to relate the changes in the share of different trip modes to various city-level factors. The results show that the bicycle mode share in a city is impacted by factors including city area size, population density, number of cars, percentage of local road mileage among all roads, and trip purpose. Possible reasons for the changes in bicycle uses in Chinese cities are explored and policy implications are discussed.

Keywords

Bicycle Trend Mode share City-level China 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the Projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51508094, 51508122), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150612), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (2015M580385), the Jiangsu Planned Projects for Postdoctoral Research Funds (1501038A), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References

  1. Beijing Municipal Government: Action Plan for Building Human Transport, Technological Transport, Green Traffic in Beijing, 2009–2015, Report by Beijing Traffic Committee (2009)Google Scholar
  2. BMA: Cycling: Towards Health and Safety. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1992)Google Scholar
  3. Carballeda, L., Velasco, L., Rojo, M., Gonzalo-Orden, H.: Public Bike Systems in Spain. 2010 European Transport Conference, Glasgow Scotland (2010)Google Scholar
  4. Cherry, C.R., Cervero, R.: Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike uers in China. Transp. Policy 14(3), 247–257 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cherry, C.R., Weinert, J.X., Yang, X.: Comparative environmental impacts of electric bikes in China. Transp. Res. Transp. Environ. 14(5), 281–290 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, X.H., Xiong, W., Huang, Z.Y., Yang, H.: Planning Bicycle Corridor for Shanghai Central City. In: Proceedings, 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2007)Google Scholar
  7. Deguzman, P.B., Merwin, E.I., Bourguignon, C.: Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods. Public Health Nurs. 30(6), 478–490 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. Dill, J., Voros, K.: Factors Affecting Bicycling Demand: Initial Survey Findings from the Portland Region. In: Proceedings, 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2007)Google Scholar
  9. Dill, J.: Bicycling for transportation and health: the role of infrastructure. J. Public Health Policy 30, S95–S110 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dickinson, J.E., Kingham, S., Copsey, S., Hougie, D.J.P.: Employer travel plans, cycling and gender: will travel plan measures improve the outlook for cycling to work in the UK? Transp. Res. Part D 8(1), 53–67 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dockery, D.W., Speizer, F.E., Stram, D.O., Ware, J.H., Spengler, J.D., Ferris, B.G.: Effects of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 139(3), 587–594 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Du, J., Wang, Q.: Exploring reciprocal influence between individual shopping travel and urban form: agent-based modeling approach. J. Urban Plan. Dev. 137(4), 390–401 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Du, W., Yang, J., Powis, B., Zheng, X., Ozanne-Smith, J., Bilsoton, L., Wu, M.: Understanding on-road practices of electric bike riders: an observational study in a developed city of China. Accid. Anal. Prev. 59, 319–326 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elvik, R.: The non-linearity of risk and the promotion of environmentally sustainable transport. Accid. Anal. Prev. 41, 849–855 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Feng, L., Jiang, Y., Chen, S.: Problem Analysis and Policy Options for Electric Bicycle Development in China. In: Proceedings, 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2008)Google Scholar
  16. Feng, Z., Raghuwanshi, R.P., Xu, Z., Huang, D., Zhang, C., Jin, T.: Electric-bicycle-related injury: a rising traffic injury burden in China. Inj. Prev. 16(6), 417–419 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fishman, E., Washington, S., Haworth, N.: Barriers and facilitators to public bicycle scheme use: a qualitative approach. Transp. Res. Part F 15(6), 686–698 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrard, J., Rose, G., Lo, S.K.: Promoting transportation cycling for women: the role of bicycle infrastructure. Prev. Med. 46(1), 55–59 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ge, W., Hui, Y., Zhao, X.: Public Bicycle-Sharing System Research in Suburban Area: Case Study in Shanghai, China. In: Proceedings, 93th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2014)Google Scholar
  20. Guo, T., Liu, J., Hu, Q., Ye, M.: Allocation Optimization of Bicycle-Sharing System at Scenic Spots: A Case Study. In: Proceedings 92th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2013)Google Scholar
  21. Guo, J.Y., Bhat, C.R., Copperman, R.B.: Effect of the Built Environment on Motorized and Non-Motorized Trip Making: Substitutive, Complementary, or Synergistic? In: Proceedings, 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2007)Google Scholar
  22. Hunt, J.D., Abraham, J.E.: Influences on bicycle use. Transportation 34, 453–470 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huy, C., Becker, S., Gomolinsky, U., Klein, T., Thiel, A.: Health, medical risk factors, and bicycle use in everyday life in the over-50 population. J. Aging Phys. Act. 16(4), 454–464 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jacobsen, P.: Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Inj. Prev. 9, 205–209 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ji, S., Cherry, C.R., Bechler, M.J., Wu, Y., Marshall, J.D.: Electric vehicles in China: emissions and health impacts. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(4), 2018–2024 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jou, R., Chen, T.: Factors affecting public transportation, car, and motorcycle usage. Transp. Res. Part A 61, 186–198 (2014)Google Scholar
  27. Kitamura, R., Mokhtarian, P.L., Laidet, L.: A micro-analysis of land use and travel in five neighborhoods in de San Francisco Bay area. Transp. Plan. Technol. 24(2), 125–158 (1997)Google Scholar
  28. Li, Z., Wang, W., Liu, P., Ragland, D.R.: Physical environments influencing bicyclists’ perception of comfort on separated and on-street bicycle facilities. Transp. Res. Transp. Environ. 17(3), 256–261 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li, Z., Wang, W., Yang, C., Ragland, D.R.: Bicycle commuting market analysis using attitudinal market segmentation approach. Transp. Res. Part A 47, 56–68 (2013a)Google Scholar
  30. Li, Z., Wang, W., Yang, C., Jiang, G.J.: Exploring the causal relationship between bicycle choice and trip chain pattern. Transp. Policy 29, 170–177 (2013b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin, S., He, M., Tan, Y., He, M.: Comparison Study on Operating Speeds of Electric Bicycles and Bicycles: Experience from Field Investigation in Kunming, China. Transportation Research Record, 2048, pp. 52–59, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2008)Google Scholar
  32. Lin, Y., Wu, C.: Traffic Safety for Electric Bike Riders in China: Attitudes, Risk Perception, and Aberrant Riding Behaviors. Transportation Research Record, 2314, pp. 49–56, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2012)Google Scholar
  33. Liu, X., Shen, L.D., Ren, F.: Overview of Bicycle Transportation In China. Transportation Research Record, 1396, pp. 1–4, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (1993)Google Scholar
  34. Liu, Z., Jia, X., Cheng, W.: Solving the last mile problem: ensure the success of public bicycle system in Beijing. Proc. Soc. Behav. Sci. 43, 73–78 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luong, B., Parikh, P., Ukkusuri, S.V.: Metaheuristic Approach for Repositioning Bicycles in a Public Bike-Sharing System. In: Proceedings, 93th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2014)Google Scholar
  36. Martens, K.: The bicycle as a feeding mode: experiences from three European countries. Transp. Res. Transp. Environ. 9(4), 281–294 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Meeusen, R., de Geus, B., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Jannes, C.: Psychosocial and environmental factors associated with cycling for transport among a working population. Health Educ. Res. 23(4), 697–708 (2008)Google Scholar
  38. Ogilvie, F., Goodman, A.: Inequalities in usage of a public bicycle sharing scheme: socio-demographic predictors of uptake and usage of the London (UK) cycle hire scheme. Prev. Med. 55(1), 40–45 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olde Kalter, M. J.: Vaker op de fiets? Effecten van overheidsmaatregelen [More often the Bicycle? Effects of Government Measures]. Den Haag: Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid [KiM] (2007)Google Scholar
  40. Pan, H., Shen, Q., Xue, S.: Intermodal Transfer between Bicycles and Rail Transit in Shanghai, China. Transportation Research Record, 2144, pp. 181–188, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2010)Google Scholar
  41. Parkin, J., Ryley, T., Jones, T.: On barriers to cycling: an exploration of quantitative analyses. In: Horton, D., Rosen, P., Cox, P. (eds.) Cycling and Society, pp. 83–96. Ashgate, London (2007)Google Scholar
  42. Parkin, J., Wardman, M., Page, M.: Estimation of the determinants of bicycle mode share for the journey to work using census data. Transportation 35(1), 93–109 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plaut, P.O.: Non-motorized Commuting in the US. Transp. Res. Part D 10, 347–356 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: a comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies. Transp. Policy 13(3), 265–279 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Making cycling irresistible: lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transp. Rev. 28(4), 495–528 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pucher, J., Buehler, R.: Analysis of Bicycling Trends and Policies in Large North American Cities: Lessons for New York. University transportation research center, Finial report (2011)Google Scholar
  47. Robinson, D.L.: Safety in numbers in Australia: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Health Promot. J. Aust. 16(1), 47–51 (2005)Google Scholar
  48. Rodríguez, D.A., Joo, J.: The relationship between non-motorized mode choice and the local physical environment. Transp. Res. Part D 9(2), 151–173 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Shan, X.: A Research on Urban Bicycle Transportation Rational Ridership and Road Resource Allocation. Doctoral dissertation, Southeast University, Nanjing (2007)Google Scholar
  50. Shaheen, S.A., Zhang, H., Martin, E., Guzman, S.: China’s Hangzhou Public Bicycle: Understanding Early Adoption and Behavioral Response to Bikesharing. Transportation Research Record, 2247, pp. 33–41, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2011)Google Scholar
  51. Stinson, M. A., Bhat, C. R. An Analysis of Commuter Bicyclist Route Choice Using Stated Preference Survey. In: Proceedings, 82th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2003)Google Scholar
  52. Stinson, M.A., Bhat, C.R. Frequency of Bicycle Commuting: Internet-Based Survey Analysis. Transportation Research Record, 1878, pp. 122–130, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2004)Google Scholar
  53. Su, J.G., Winters, M., Nunes, M., Brauer, M.: Designing a route planner to facilitate and promote cycling in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Transp. Res. Part A 44(7), 495–505 (2010)Google Scholar
  54. Tanaboriboon, Y, Ying, G.: Characteristics of Bicycle Users in Shanghai, China. Transportation Research Record, 1396, pp. 22–29, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1993)Google Scholar
  55. Washington, S., Karlaftis, M., Mannering, F.: Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton (2010)Google Scholar
  56. Wang, Y., Li, L., Wang, Z., Lv, T., Wang, L.: Mode shift behavior impacts from the introduction of metro service: case study of Xi’an, China. J. Urban Plan. Dev. 139(3), 216–225 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weinert, J.X., Ma, C., Yang, X., Cherry, C.R.: Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Effect on Travel Behavior, Mode Shift, and User Safety Perceptions in a Medium-Sized City. Transportation Research Record, 2038, pp. 62–68, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.(2007)Google Scholar
  58. Xing, Y., Handy, S.L., Mokhtarian, P.L.: Factors associated with proportions and miles of bicycling for transportation and recreation in six small US cities. Transp. Res. Transp. Environ. 15(2), 73–81 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yang, C.: Exploring the Travel Demand Characteristics and Influencing Factors on Bicycle Usage in Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Southeast University, Nanjing (2011)Google Scholar
  60. Yang, M., Wang, W., Chen, X., Wan, T., Xu, R.: Empirical Analysis of Commute Trip Chaining: Case Study of Shangyu, China. Transportation Research Record, 2038, pp. 139–147, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2007)Google Scholar
  61. Yang, C., Wang, W., Shan, X., Jin, J., Lu, J., Li, Z.: The Effects of Personal Factors on Bicycle Commuting in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Nanjing, China. Transportation Research Record, 2193, pp. 96–104, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2010)Google Scholar
  62. Yao, L., Wu, C.: Traffic Safety for Electric Bike Riders in China: Attitudes, Risk Perception, and Aberrant Riding Behaviors. Transportation Research Record, 2314, pp. 49–56, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2012)Google Scholar
  63. Zahran, S., Brody, S.D., Maghelal, P., Prelog, A., Lacy, M.: Cycling and walking: explaining the spatial distribution of healthy modes of transportation in the United States. Transp. Res. Part D: Transp. Environ. 13(7), 462–470 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Yang, X., Liu, Q., Li, C.: Built Environment and Household Electric Bike Ownership: Insights from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. Transportation Research Record, 2387, pp. 102–111, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2013)Google Scholar
  65. Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Chen, L., Chen, X., Sun, G., Zhong, N., Kan, H., Lu, W.: Impact of haze and air pollution-related hazards on hospital admissions in Guangzhou, China. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21(6), 4236–4244 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zhu, W., Pang Y., Wang, D., Timmermans, H.: Travel Behavior Change After the Introduction of Public Bicycle Systems: Case Study in Minhang District, Shanghai. In: Proceedings 92th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of ArchitectureSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Shanghai City Comprehensive Transportation Planning InstituteShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations