Skip to main content

Compliance and data quality in GPS-based studies

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed a growing volume of papers describing the use of GPS technology and other tracking technologies for obtaining data on time–space activities. These methods have several advantages over traditional methods of time–space data collection in terms of accuracy, resolution and length of the possible data collection period. However, to date, no work has been done on the compliance rates among participants and the resulting validity of the collected data. This paper presents a method that combines the use of a GPS receiver with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology that was implemented in research on time–space activities of elderly persons with cognitive impairment. The method presented in this paper enables monitoring the level of compliance of the participants during their participation in the study and presents a unique opportunity to examine the extent to which participants in a GPS based study are able to comply with study requirements. Healthy older adults and those with cognitive decline were found to be generally compliant with a complex study protocol. These results serve as another step into the acceptance of GPS based studies as a valid methodology for mobility data collection.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Anderson, J.: Space-time budgets and activity studies in urban geography and planning. Environ. Plan. A 3(4), 353–368 (1971)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Axhausen, K., Zimmermann, A., Schönfelder, S., Rindsfüser, G., Haupt, T.: Observing the rhythms of daily life: a six-week travel diary. Transportation 29, 95–124 (2002)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Axhausen, K.W., Löchl, M., Schlich, R., Buhl, T., Widmer, P.: Fatigue in long duration surveys. Transportation 34(2), 143–160 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bricka, S.G., Sen, S., Paleti, R., Bhat, C.R.: An analysis of the factors influencing differences in survey-reported and GPS-recorded trips. Transp. Res. Part C 21(1), 67–88 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elgethun, K., Fenske, R.A., Yost, M.G., Palcisko, G.J.: Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument. Environ. Health Perspect. 111, 115–122 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gauthier, S., Reisberg, B., Zaudig, M., Petersen, R.C., Ritchie, K., Broich, K., et al.: Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 367, 1262–1270 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodchild, M.F., Janelle, D.G.: The city around the clock: space-time patterns of urban ecological structure (Halifax, Canada). Environ. Plan. A 16, 807–820 (1984)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hanson, S., Hanson, P.: The activity patterns of urban residents: dimensions and relationships to sociodemographic characteristics. Econ. Geogr. 57, 332–347 (1981)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Janelle, D.G., Goodchild, M.F., Klinkenberg, K.: Space-time diaries and travel characteristics for different levels of respondent aggregation. Environ. Plan. A 20(7), 891–906 (1988)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le Faucheur, A., Abraham, P., Jaquinandi, V., Bouyé, P., Saumet, J. L., Noury-Desvaux, B.: Measurement of walking distance and speed in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Circ.: J. Am. Heart Assoc., 117, 897–904 (2008)

  • Macket, R., Brown, B., Gong, Y., Kitazawa, K., Paskins, J.: Children’s independent movement in the local environment. Built Environ. 33(4), 454–468 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madre, J.-L., Axhausen, K.W., Brög, W.: Immobility in travel diary surveys. Transportation 34(1), 107–128 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miskelly, F.: A novel system of electronic tagging in patients with dementia and wandering. Age Ageing 33(3), 304–306 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miskelly, F.: Electronic tracking of patients with dementia and wandering using mobile phone technology. Age Ageing 34(5), 497–499 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oliveira, M., Vovsha, P., Wolf, J., Birotker, Y., Givon, D., Paasche, J.: GPS-assisted prompted recall household travel survey to support development of advanced travel model in Jerusalem, Israel. Transp. Res. Rec. 2246, 16–23 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, M.L., Hall, T.A., Esmen, N.A., Lynch, R., Johnson, D.L.: Use of global positioning system technology to track subject’s location during environmental exposure sampling. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 11, 207–215 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoval, N., Isaacson, M.: The application of tracking technologies to the study of pedestrian spatial behaviour. Prof. Geogr. 58(2), 172–183 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoval, N.: Tracking technologies and urban analysis. Cities 25(1), 21–28 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoval, N., Auslander, G.K., Freytag, T., Landau, R., Oswald, F., Seidl, U., Wahl, H.-W., Werner, S., Heinik, J.: The use of advanced tracking technologies for the analysis of mobility in Alzheimer’s disease and related cognitive diseases. BMC Geriatr. 8, 7 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoval, N., Kwan, M.-P., Reinau, K.H., Harder, H.: The shoemaker’s sons always goes barefoot: implementations of GPS and other tracking technologies for geographic research. Geoforum 51, 1–5 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stopher, P., Shen, L.: In-depth comparison of global positioning system and diary records. Transp. Res. Rec.: J. Transp. Res. Board 2246, 32–37 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Terrier, P., Schutz, Y.: How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS) to track gait parameters? A review. J. NeuroEng. Rehabil. 2, 28 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thornton, P.R., Williams, A.M., Shaw, G.: Revisiting time-space diaries: an exploratory case study of tourist behaviour in Cornwall, England. Environ. Plan. A 29(10), 1847–1867 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wiehe, S.E., Hoch, S.C., Liu, G.C., Carroll, A.E., Wilson, J.S., Fortenberry, J.D.: Adolescent travel patterns: pilot data indicating distance from home varies by time of day and day of week. J. Adolesc. Health 42(4), 418–420 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, J.: Using GPS Data loggers to replace travel diaries in collection of travel data. Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia (2000)

  • Wolf, J.: Applications of new technologies in travel surveys. In: Stopher, P., Stecher, C. (eds.) Travel Survey Methods: Quality and Future Directions, pp. 531–544. Elsevier, Oxford (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  • Xia, J., Arrowsmith, C., Jackson, M., Cartwright, W.: The wayfinding process relationship between decision-making and landmark utility. Tour. Manag. 29, 445–457 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Support for this project provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of German-Israeli Project Cooperation (DIP) is gratefully acknowledged. Three reviewers provided valuable input on an earlier version of the paper. However, the authors are solely responsible for any errors and mistakes.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michal Isaacson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Isaacson, M., Shoval, N., Wahl, HW. et al. Compliance and data quality in GPS-based studies. Transportation 43, 25–36 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-014-9560-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-014-9560-3

Keywords

  • Compliance
  • Time–space activities
  • Global positioning system
  • Data validity