, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 105–123

An analysis of trip chaining among older London residents

  • Jan-Dirk Schmöcker
  • Fengming Su
  • Robert B. Noland

DOI: 10.1007/s11116-009-9222-z

Cite this article as:
Schmöcker, JD., Su, F. & Noland, R.B. Transportation (2010) 37: 105. doi:10.1007/s11116-009-9222-z


This paper examines the trip chaining complexity of individuals in London. We adopt two definitions of trip chaining. One based on a 30 min dwell time rule and a second based on home-to-home tours. Our focus is on the complexity of the trip chains as measured by the number of stops on a given tour. The analysis uses the London Area Travel Survey and examines the factors associated with trip chaining for people aged over 65. A comparison with those aged under 65 reveals that older people on average make more complex tours when the 30 min dwell time rule is applied as opposed to when the home-to-home definition is applied. It is further shown that the anchor points of the tour are critical for determining tour complexity, suggesting the usefulness of the 30 min definition. Our analysis also suggests that older people reduce total home-to-home tours by combining different trips into single tours. Through descriptive analysis and ordered probit regression models we examine how reported levels of disability affect their trip chaining and we examine household demographic characteristics as well as proxies for accessibility, such as local population density. The analysis shows that disabilities do not necessarily lead to reduced tour complexity except when walking difficulties become so severe that independent travel is not possible. We suggest that tour complexity might further increase in the future, for example as the spread of mobile phone usage appears to have a further positive influence on tour complexity. Implications for land-use and transport planning are discussed.


Trip chaining Older people Tour definition 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan-Dirk Schmöcker
    • 1
  • Fengming Su
    • 2
  • Robert B. Noland
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringTokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Comprehensive Transportation of NDRCBeijingChina
  3. 3.Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public PolicyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

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