The policy of accreditation of criminal justice organizations has grown over the last four decades. Some advocates for accreditation claim that it facilitates organizational change at all levels of the organization. To date, however, little empirical research has examined these claims, especially within criminal justice agencies. While accreditation leads agencies to adopt formal policies, the previous literature on street-level bureaucrat behavior would suggest rank-and-file employees are unlikely to follow these formal policies as intended. The Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA) is the accrediting body for law enforcement agencies in North America, and part of the formal policies CALEA accreditation requires regard engagement in community oriented policing. The present study examined whether officers on CALEA accredited agencies differed from officers with agencies not seeking accreditation, with regard to their engagement in community policing activities. The findings revealed that agency accreditation was not associated with the degree to which officers engaged in community oriented policing activities.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Data for this study was obtained from: Haarrr, Robin N., Impact of Community Policing Training and Program Implementation on Police Personnel in Arizona, 1995–1998 [Computer file]. ICPSR version. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona State University West [producer], 2001. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium of Political and Social Research [distributor], 2003.
Alpert, G. P., & MacDonald, J. (2001). Police use of force: an analysis of organizational characteristics. Justice Quarterly, 18, 393–409.
Archbold, C. A. (2004). Police accountability, risk management, and legal advising. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
Bianco, W., & Bates, R. (1990). Cooperation by design: leadership, structure, and collective dilemmas. American Political Science Review, 84, 133–148.
Brehm, J., & Gates, S. (1993). Donut shops and speed traps: evaluating models of supervision on police behavior. American Journal of Political Science, 37, 555–581.
Brehm, J., & Gates, S. (1994). When supervision fails to induce compliance. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 6, 323–344.
Brehm, J., & Gates, S. (1997). Working, shirking, and sabotage. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Brittingham, B. (2009). Accreditation in the United States: how did we get to where we are? New Directions for Higher Education, 2009, 7–27.
Casile, M., & Davis-Blake, A. (2002). When accreditation standards change: factors affecting differential responsiveness of public and private organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 180–195.
Chappell, A. T. (2009). The philosophical versus actual adoption of community policing. Criminal Justice Review, 34, 5–28.
Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA). (2006). Standards for law enforcement agencies. Fairfax: CALEA.
Cordner, G. W. (2005). Community policing: Elements and effects. In R. G. Dunham & G. P. Alpert (Eds.), Critical issues in policing: Contemporary readings (pp. 493–510). Long Grove: Waveland Press.
Dejong, C., Mastrofski, S. D., & Parks, R. B. (2001). Patrol officers and problem solving: an application of expectancy theory. Justice Quarterly, 18, 31–61.
DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.
Doerner, W. G., & Doerner, W. M. (2009). The diffusion of accreditation among Florida police agencies. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 32, 781–798.
Doerner, W. M., & Doerner, W. G. (2012). Police accreditation and clearance rates. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 35, 6–24.
Engel, R. S., & Worden, R. E. (2003). Police officers’ attitudes, behavior, and supervisory influences: an analysis of problem solving. Criminology, 41, 131–166.
Gingerich, T. E., & Russell, G. D. (2006). Accreditation and community policing: are they neutral, hostile, or synergistic? Justice Policy Journal, 3, 1–28.
Goodstein, J. (1994). Institutional pressures and strategic responsiveness: employer involvement in work-family issues. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 350–382.
Greenfield, D., & Braithwaite, J. (2008). Health sector accreditation research: a systematic review. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 20, 172–183.
Haarr, R. (2003). Impact of community policing training and program implementation on police personnel in Arizona, 1995–1998. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
He, N., Zhao, J., & Lovrich, N. P. (2005). Community policing: a preliminary assessment of environmental impact with panel data on program implementation in U.S. cities. Crime and Delinquency, 51, 295–317.
Hickman, M., & Reaves, B. (2006). Local Police Departments, 2003. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Holm, P. (1995). The dynamics of institutionalization: transformation processes in Norwegian fisheries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 398–422.
Holmstrom, B. (1982). Moral hazard in teams. Bell Journal of Economics, 13, 324–340.
Jensen, M. C., & Meckling, W. H. (1976). Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3, 305–360.
Johnson, R. R. (2006). Management influences on officer traffic enforcement productivity. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 8, 205–217.
Johnson, R. R. (2009a). Explaining patrol officer drug arrest activity through expectancy theory. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 32, 6–20.
Johnson, R. R. (2009b). Making domestic violence arrests: a test of expectancy theory. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33, 531–547.
Johnson, R. R. (2010). Making domestic violence arrests: a test of expectancy theory. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 33, 531–547.
Johnson, R. R. (2012). Police officer job satisfaction: a multidimensional analysis. Police Quarterly, 15, 157–176.
Kratcoski, P. C., & Noonan, S. B. (1995). An assessment of police officers’ acceptance of community policing. In P. C. Kratcoski & D. Dukes (Eds.), Issues in community policing (pp. 169–186). Cincinnati: Anderson.
Langworthy, R., & Travis, L. (2003). Policing in America: A Balance of Forces. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-level bureaucracy. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Loughran, E. J. (1998). Developing and implementing performance-based standards for juvenile justice agencies: institutionalizing the concept that you are what you count. Corrections Management Quarterly, 2, 79–86.
Marino, F. J. (1998). Risk report. Fairfax: Intergovernmental Risk Management Agency.
Mastrofski, S. D. (1998). Police agency accreditation: a skeptical view. Policing: An International Journal of Strategies and Management, 21, 202–205.
Mastrofski, S. D., Ritti, R. R., & Snipes, J. (1994). Expectancy theory and police productivity in DUI enforcement. Law and Society Review, 28, 113–148.
Mastrofski, S. D., Willis, J. J., & Kochel, T. R. (2007). The challenges of implementing community policing in the United States. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 1, 223–234.
McCabe, K. A., & Fajardo, R. G. (2001). Law enforcement accreditation: a national comparison of accredited vs. nonaccreditated agencies. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29, 127–131.
Miller, G. (1992). Managerial dilemmas: The political economy of hierarchy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, M., Pronovost, P., Donithan, M., Zeger, S., Zhan, C., Morlock, L., et al. (2005). Relationship between performance measurement and accreditation: implications for quality of care and patient safety. American Journal of Medical Quality, 20, 239–252.
Morabito, M. S. (2010). Understanding community policing as an innovation: patterns of adoption. Crime and Delinquency, 58, 564–587.
Paoline, E. A., Lambert, E. G., & Hogan, N. L. (2006). A calm and happy keeper of the keys: the impact of ACA views, relations with coworkers, and policy views on the job stress and job satisfaction of correctional staff. The Prison Journal, 86, 182–205.
Sack, C., Lutkes, P., Gunther, W., Erbel, R., Jockel, K. H., & Holtmann, G. (2010). Challenging the holy grail of hospital accreditation: a cross sectional study of inpatient satisfaction in the field of cardiology. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 120–125.
Scott, W. R. (1987). The adolescence of institutional theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 493–511.
Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Shapiro, S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality. Biometrika, 52, 591–599.
Skogan, W. G., & Frydl, L. (2004). Fairness and effectiveness in policing. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Smith, S., Winchester, D., Bunker, D., & Jamieson, R. (2010). Circuits of power: a study of mandated compliance to an information systems security de jure standard in a government organization. MIS Quarterly, 34, 463–486.
Sykes, G. W. (1994). Accreditation and community policing: passing fads or basic reforms? Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 10, 1–16.
Teodoro, M. P. (2009). Bureaucratic job mobility and the diffusion of innovations. American Journal of Political Science, 53, 175–189.
Teodoro, M. P., & Hughes, A. G. (2012). Socializer or signal? How agency accreditation affects organizational culture. Public Administration Review, 72, 583–591.
Trojanowicz, R., & Bucqueroux, B. (1990). Community policing: A contemporary perspective. Cincinnati: Anderson.
Van Maanen, J. (1983). The boss: First-line supervision in an American police agency. In M. Punch (Ed.), Control in the police organization (pp. 275–317). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
Walker, S. (2001). Police accountability: The role of citizen oversight. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Walker, S., & Katz, C. M. (2008). The police in America: An introduction (6th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Wilson, J. Q. (1989). Bureaucracy. New York: Basic Books.
About this article
Cite this article
Johnson, R.R. Examining the Effects of Agency Accreditation on Police Officer Behavior. Public Organiz Rev 15, 139–155 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-013-0265-4
- Community policing
- Public policy
- Organizational behavior