Oil Spill Disruption and Problem Drinking: Assessing the Impact of Religious Context among Gulf Coast Residents

  • Leah DrakefordEmail author
  • Vanessa Parks
  • Tim Slack
  • Rajeev Ramchand
  • Melissa Finucane
  • Matthew R. Lee
Original Research


While a wide body of research has indicated that social resources may be enhanced through religious practice, few studies have explored how social resources are impacted by the intersection of the social and individual domains of religion. Using data from the recently conducted Survey of Trauma, Resilience, and Opportunity among Neighborhoods in the Gulf, this study employs multilevel analysis to examine the impact of religious context on alcohol misuse among individuals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Our findings indicate that residence in areas that have high levels of religious concentration may magnify the risk of problem drinking among disaster-affected individuals for whom religion is not very salient, suggesting that religious context may influence the distribution of social resources differently between the religious and irreligious.


Religion Alcohol Disaster Stress Community Health Religious context 



This research was made possible by a Grant from the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. Data are publicly available through the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative Information & Data Cooperative (GRIIDC) at (


  1. Adamczyk, A., & Palmer, I. (2008). Religion and initiation into marijuana use: The deterring role of religious friends. Journal of Drug Issues,,38(3), 717–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arata, C. M., Picou, J. S., Johnson, G. D., & McNally, T. S. (2000). Coping with technological disaster: An application of the conservation of resources model to the exxon valdez oil spill. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(1), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bade, M. K., & Cook, S. W. (2008). Functions of Prayer in the coping process. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47(1), 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battaglia, M. P., Izrael, D., Hoglin, D. C., & Frankel, M. R. (2009). Practical considerations in raking survey data. Survey Practice, 2(5), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beaudoin, C. E. (2011). Hurricane katrina: Addictive behavior trends and predictors. Public Health Reports, 126(3), 400–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, P. E., & Dhingra, P. H. (2001). Religious involvement and volunteering: Implications for civil society. Sociology of Religion, 62(3), 315–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanchard, T. C., Bartkowski, J. P., Matthews, T. L., & Kerley, K. R. (2008). Faith, morality, and mortality: The ecological impact of religion on population health. Social Forces, 86(4), 1591–1620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boardman, J. D., & Alexander, K. B. (2011). Stress trajectories, health behaviors, and the mental health of black and white young adults. Social Science and Medicine, 72(10), 1659–1666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bock, E. W., Cochran, J. K., & Beeghley, L. (1987). Moral messages: The relative influence of denomination on the religiosity-alcohol relationship. The Sociological Quarterly, 28(1), 89–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouchery, E. E., Harwood, H. J., Sacks, J. J., Simon, C. J., & Brewer, R. D. (2011). Economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in the U.S., 2006. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 41(5), 516–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley, D. E. (1995). Religious involvement and social resources: Evidence from the Data Set ‘Americans’ Changing Lives’. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 34(2), 259–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradshaw, M., & Ellison, C. G. (2010). Financial hardship and psychological distress: Exploring the buffering effects of religion. Social Science and Medicine, 71(1), 196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breslow, R. A., Chen, C. M., Graubard, B. I., & Mukamal, K. J. (2011). Prospective study of alcohol consumption quantity and frequency and cancer-specific mortality in the US population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 174(9), 1044–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Browning, C. R., & Soller, B. (2014). Moving beyond neighborhood: Activity Spaces and ecological networks as contexts for youth development. Cityscape, 16(1), 165–196.Google Scholar
  15. Bush, K., Kivlahan, D. R., McDonell, M. B., Fihn, S. D., & Bradley, K. A. (1998). The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C). Archives of Internal Medicine, 158(16), 1789–1795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carle, A. C. (2009). Fitting multilevel models in complex survey data with design weights: Recommendations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpiano, R. M. (2006). Toward a neighborhood resource-based theory of social capital for health: Can bourdieu and sociology help? Social Science and Medicine, 62, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpiano, R. M. (2007). Neighborhood social capital and adult health: An empirical test of a bourdieu-based model. Health & Place, 13(6), 639–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Vital signs: Binge Drinking prevalence, frequency, and intensity among adults—United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 61(1), 14–19.Google Scholar
  20. Cerda, M., Tracy, M., & Galea, S. (2011). A prospective population based study of changes in alcohol use and binge drinking after a mass traumatic event. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(1), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chantalla, K., Blanchette, D., & Suchindran, C. M. (2011). Software to compute sampling weights for multilevel analysis. Chapel Hill: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  22. Cheadle, J. E., & Schwadel, P. (2012). The ‘friendship dynamics of religion’, or the ‘religious dynamics of friendship?’ A social network analysis of adolescents who attend small schools. Social Science Research, 41, 1198–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke, H. E., & Mayer, B. (2017). Community recovery following the deepwater horizon oil spill: Toward a theory of cultural resilience. Society & Natural Resources, 30(2), 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cochran, J. K., & Akers, R. L. (1989). Beyond hellfire: An exploration of the variable effects of religiosity on adolescent marijuana and alcohol use. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 26(3), 198–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cochran, J. K., Beeghley, L., & Bock, E. W. (1988). Religiosity and alcohol behavior: An exploration of reference group theory. Sociological Forum, 3(2), 256–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cope, M. R., & Slack, T. (2017). Emplaced social vulnerability to technological disasters: Southeast Louisiana and the BP deepwater horizon oil spill. Populations and Environment, 38(3), 317–2410.Google Scholar
  27. Cope, M. R., Slack, T., Blanchard, T. C., & Lee, M. R. (2013). Does time heal all wounds? Community attachment, natural resource employment, and health impacts in the wake of the BP deepwater horizon disaster. Social Science Research, 42, 872–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Curtin, R., Presser, S., & Singer, E. (2005). Changes in telephone survey nonresponse over the past quarter century. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(1), 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drakeford, L. (2018). Mental health and the role of religious context among inmates in state and federal prisons: Results from a multilevel analysis. Society and Mental Health. Scholar
  30. Drakeford, L. Forthcoming. Moral communities and institutional misconduct: A reassessment of religious contextual influences on inmate behavior. Crime & Delinquency.Google Scholar
  31. Drescher, C. F., Schulenberg, S. E., & Smith, C. V. (2014). The deepwater horizon oil spill and the Mississippi Gulf Coast: Mental health in the context of a disaster. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(2), 142–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Duncan, G. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Assessing the effects of context in studies of child and youth development. Educational Psychologist, 34(1), 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dyer, C. L., Gill, D. A., & Picou, J. S. (1992). Social disruption and the valdez oil spill: Alaskan natives in a natural resource community. Sociological Spectrum, 12(2), 105–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eitle, D. (2011). Religion and gambling among young adults in the United States: moral communities and the deterrence hypothesis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(1), 61–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ellison, C. G., Bradshaw, M., Rote, S., Sotrch, J., & Trevino, M. (2008). Religion and alcoohol use among college students: Exploring the Role of domain-specific religious salience. Journal of Drug Issues, 38(3), 821–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ellison, C. G., Burr, J. A., & McCall, P. L. (1997). Religious homogeneity and metropolitan suicide rates. Social Forces, 76(1), 273–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ellison, C. G., Fang, Q., Flannelly, K. J., & Steckler, R. A. (2013). Spiritual struggles and mental health: Exploring the moderating Effects of religious identity. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(3), 214–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ellison, C. G., & George, L. K. (1994). Religious involvement, social ties, and social support in a Southeastern community. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33(1), 46–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ellison, C. G., & Henderson, A. K. (2011). Religion and mental health: Through the lens of the stress process. In A. Blasi (Ed.), Toward a sociological theory of religion and health (pp. 11–44). Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fan, A. Z., Prescott, M. R., Zhao, G., Gotway, C. A., & Galea, S. (2015). Individual and community-level determinants of mental and physical health after the deepwater horizon oil spill: Findings from the gulf states population survey. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(1), 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Finke, R., & Adamczyk, A. (2008). Cross-national moral beliefs: The influence of national religious context. The Sociological Quarterly, 49(4), 617–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flory, K., Hankin, B. L., Kloos, B., Cheely, C., & Turecki, G. (2009). Alcohol and cigarette use and misuse among hurrican katrina survivors: Psychosocial Risk and protective factors. Substance Use and Misuse, 44(12), 1711–1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Freedy, J. R., Shaw, D. L., Jarrell, M. P., & Masters, C. R. (1992). Towards an understanding of the psychological impact of natural disasters: An application of the conservation of resources model. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5(3), 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gault-Sherman, M., & Draper, S. (2012). What will the neighbors think? The Effect of moral communities on cohabitation. Review of Religious Research, 54(1), 45–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gill, D. A., & Picou, J. S. (1998). Technological disaster and chronic community stress. Society & Natural Resources, 11(8), 795–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gill, D. A., Picou, J. S., & Ritchie, L. A. (2012). The exxon valdez and BP oil spills: A comparison of initial social and psychological impacts. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(1), 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gould, D. W., Teich, J. L., Pemberton, M. R., Pierannunzi, C., & Larson, S. (2015). Behavioral health in the gulf coast region following the deepwater horizon oil spill: Findings from two federal surveys. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Graif, C., Arcaya, M. C., & Roux, A. V. D. (2016). Moving to opportunity and mental health: Exploring the spatial context of neighborhood effects. Social Science and Medicine, 162, 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grammich, C., Hadaway, K., Houseal, R., Jones, D. E., Krindatch, A., Stanley, R., Taylor, R. H. (2012). 2010 U.S. Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study. Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies.Google Scholar
  50. Groves, R. M. (2006). Nonresponse rates and nonresponse bias in household surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(5), 646–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Henslee, A. M., Coffey, S. F., Schumacher, J. A., Tracy, M., Norris, F., & Galea, S. (2015). Religious coping and psychological behavioral adjustment after hurricane katrina. The Journal of Psychology, 149(6), 630–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hill, T. D., Burdette, A. M., Ellison, C. G., & Musick, M. A. (2006). Religious attendance and the health behaviors of texas adults. Preventive Medicine, 42(4), 309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the Nested-Self in the stress process: Advancing conservation of resources theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(3), 337–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hobfoll, S. F., Freedy, J., Lane, C., & Geller, P. (1990). Conservation of social resources: Social Support resource theory. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7(4), 465–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoffmann, J. P. (2014). Religiousness, social networks, moral schemas, and marijuana use: A dynamic dual-process model of culture and behavior. Social Forces, 93(1), 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Inagami, S., Cohen, D. A., & Finch, B. K. (2007). Non-residential neighborhood exposures suppress neighborhood effects on self-rated health. Social Science and Medicine, 65(8), 1779–1791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jackson, J. S., Knight, K. M., & Rafferty, J. A. (2010). Race and unhealthy behaviors: Chronic stress, the HPA axis, and physical and mental health disparities over the life course. American Journal of Public Health, 100(5), 933–939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jung, J. H. (2018). Country-Level differences in the effects of financial hardship on life satisfaction: The role of religious context and age-contingent buffering. Society and Mental Health, 8(2), 123–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keeter, S., Kennedy, C., Dimock, M., Best, J., & Craighill, P. (2006). Gauging the impact of growing nonresponse on estimates from a national RDD telephone survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(5), 759–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keeter, S., Miller, C., Kohut, A., Goves, R. M., & Presser, S. (2000). Consequences of reducing nonresponse in a national telephone survey. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64(2), 125–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kelly, P. E., Polanin, J. R., Jang, S. J., & Johnson, B. R. (2015). Religion, delinquency, and drug use: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice Review, 40(4), 505–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Keyes, K. M., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Grant, B. F., & Hasin, D. S. (2012). Stress and alcohol. Alcohol research: Current reviews, 34(4), 391–400.Google Scholar
  65. Krause, N., & Wulff, K. M. (2004). Religious doubt and health: Exploring the potential dark side of religion. Sociology of Religion, 65(1), 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kwan, M. P. (2012). The uncertain geographic context problem. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102(2), 958–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee, M. R., & Bartkowski, J. P. (2004). Love thy neighbor? Moral communities, civic engagement, and juvenile homicide in rural areas. Social Forces, 82(3), 1001–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee, M. R., & Blanchard, T. C. (2012). Community attachment and negative affective states in the context of the bp deepwater horizon disaster. American Behavioral Scientist, 56, 24–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lewis, V. A., McGregor, C. A., & Putnam, R. D. (2013). Religion, networks, and neighborliness: The impact of religious social networks on civic engagement. Social Science Research, 42, 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lim, C. (2013). Counting the faithful: Measuring local religious contexts in the United States. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 529(2), 386–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lim, C., & MacGregor, C. A. (2012). Religion and volunteering in context: Disentangling the contextual effects of religion on voluntary behavior. American Sociological Review, 77(5), 747–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maas, C. J. M., & Hox, J. J. (2005). Sufficient Sample Sizes for Multilevel modeling. Methodology, 1(3), 86–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maclean, J. C., Popovici, I., & French, M. T. (2016). Are natural disasters in early childhood associated with mental health and substance use disorders as an adult? Social Science Research, 151, 78–91.Google Scholar
  74. Marsden, P. V. (1988). Homogeneity in confiding relations. Social Networks, 10(1), 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marshall, B. K., Picou, J. S., & Schlichtmann, J. R. (2004). Technological disasters, litigation stress, and the use of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. Law & Policy, 26(2), 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McClure, J. M. (2013). Sources of social support: Examining congregational involvement, private devotional activities, and congregational context. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52(4), 698–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McPherson, M., Lynn-Smith, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophilly in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 514–4440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Merino, S. M. (2014). Social support and the religious dimensions of close ties. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53(3), 595–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Michalak, L., Trocki, K., & Bond, J. (2007). Religion and alcohol in the U.S. national alcohol survey: How important is religion for abstention and drinking? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 87(2), 268–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moore, E. W., Berkley-Patton, J. Y., & Hawes, S. M. (2013). Religiosity, alcohol use, and sex behaviors among college student-athletes. Journal of Religion and Health, 52(3), 930–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Naimi, T. S., Brewer, R. D., Mokdad, A., Denny, C., Serdula, M. K., & Marks, J. S. (2003). Binge drinking among US adults. JAMA, 289(1), 70–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nelson, D. E., Jarman, D. W., Rehm, J., Greenfield, T. K., Rey, G., Kerr, W. C., et al. (2013). Alcohol-attributable cancer deaths and Years of potential life lost in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4), 641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nooney, J., & Woodrum, E. (2002). Religious coping and church-based social support as predictors of mental health outcomes: Testing a conceptual model. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(2), 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. North, C. S., Oliver, J., & Pandya, A. (2012). Examining a comprhensive model of disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder in systematically studied survivors of 10 disasters. American Journal of Public Health, 102(10), e40–e48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olson, D. V. A., & Perl, P. (2011). A friend in creed: Does the religious composition of geographic areas affect the religious composition of a person’s close friends? Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(3), 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pargament, K. I., Kennell, J., Hathaway, W., Grevengoed, N., Newman, J., & Jones, W. (1988). Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 27(1), 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Park, J. Z., & Smith, C. (2000). ’To whom much has been given…’: Religious capital and community voluntarism among churchgoing protestants. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 39(3), 272–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Parks, V., Drakeford, L., Cope, M. R., & Slack, T. (2018). Disruption of routine behaviors following the deepwater horizon oil spill. Society & Natural Resources, 31(3), 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peters, R. J., Meshack, A., Amos, C., Scott-Gurnell, K., Savage, C., & Ford, K. (2010). The association of drug use and post-traumatic stress reactions due to hurricane ike among fifth ward houstonian youth. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 9(2), 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pew Research Center. (2012). Assessing the representativeness of public opinion surveys. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Retrieved from,
  91. Picou, J. S., Marshall, B. K., & Gill, D. A. (2004). Disaster, litigation, and the corrosive community. Social Forces, 82(4), 1493–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Regnerus, M. D. (2003). Moral communities and adolescent delinquency: Religious contexts and community social control. The Sociological Quarterly, 44(4), 523–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ritchie, L. (2012). Individual stress, collective trauma, and social capital in the wake of the exxon valdez oil spill. Sociological Inquiry, 82(2), 187–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ritchie, L. A., Gill, D. A., & Long, M. A. (2018). Mitigating litigating: An examination of psychosocial impacts of compensation processes associated with the 2010 BP deepwater horizon oil spill. Risk Analysis, 38, 1656–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rivera, C. J., Lauger, T. R., & Cretacci, M. A. (2018). Religiosity, marijuana use, and binge drinking: A Test of the moral community hypothesis. Sociology of Religion, 79(3), 356–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roerecke, M., & Rehm, J. (2013). Alcohol use disorders and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction, 108(9), 1562–1578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rose, T., Shields, J., Tueller, S., & Larson, S. (2015). Religiosity and Behavioral health outcomes of adolescents living in disaster-vulnerable areas. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(2), 480–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schafer, M. H. (2015). Religiously traditional, unusually supportive? Examining who gives, helps, and advises in americans’ close networks. Social Currents, 2(1), 81–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scheitle, C. P., & Adamczyk, A. (2009). It takes two: The interplay of individual and group theology on social embeddedness. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48(1), 16–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwadel, P., Cheadle, J. E., Malone, S. E., & Stout, M. (2016). Social networks and civic participation and efficacy in two evangelical churches. Review of Religious Research, 58(2), 305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Smith, B. W., Pargament, K. I., Brant, Cs, & Oliver, J. M. (2000). Noah revisited: Religious coping by church members and the impact of the 1993 Midwest flood. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(2), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Stark, R. (1996). Religion as context: Hellfire and delinquency one more time. Sociology of Religion, 57(2), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Steensland, B., Park, J. Z., Regnerus, M. D., Robinson, L. D., Wilcox, W. B., & Woodberry, R. D. (2000). The measure of american religion: Toward improving the state of the art. Social Forces, 79(1), 291–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stockdale, S. E., Wells, K. B., Tang, L., Berlin, T. R., Zhang, L., & Sherbourne, C. D. (2007). The importance of social context: Neighborhood stressors, stress-buffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders. Social Science and Medicine, 65(9), 1867–1881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stroope, S., & Baker, J. (2018). Whose moral community? Religiosity, secularity, and self-rated health across communal Religious contexts. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59, 185–199. Scholar
  106. Stroope, S., Walker, M. H., & Franzen, A. B. (2017). Stress buffer or identity threat” negative media portrayal, public and private religious involvement, and mental health in a national sample of U.S. Adults. Society and Mental Health, 7(2), 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Teich, J. L., & Pemberton, M. R. (2015). Epidemiologic studies of behavioral health following the deepwater horizon oil spill: Limited impact or limited ability to measure? The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 42(1), 77–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. The American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR). (2016). Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys, 9th ed.AAPOR.Google Scholar
  109. Ulmer, J. T., Bader, C., & Gault, M. (2008). Do moral communities play a role in criminal sentencing? Evidence from Pennsylvania. The Sociological Quarterly, 49(4), 737–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. US Census Bureau. 2016a. American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. 2014.Google Scholar
  111. US Census Bureau. 2016b. County Business Patterns.Google Scholar
  112. Vargas, N., & Loveland, M. T. (2011). Befriending the ‘other’: patterns of social ties between the religious and non-religious. Sociological Perspectives, 54(4), 713–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Welch, A. E., Caramanica, K., Maslow, C. B., Cone, J. E., Farfel, M. R., Keyes, K. M., et al. (2014). Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the world trade center health registry. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 140, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Welch, M. R., Tittle, C. R., & Petee, T. (1991). Religion and deviance among adult catholics: A test of the ‘moral communities’ hypothesis. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30(2), 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Whitehead, A. L., & Stroope, S. (2015). Small groups, contexts, and civic engagement: A multilevel analysis of united states congregational life survey data. Social Science Research, 52, 659–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leah Drakeford
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vanessa Parks
    • 1
  • Tim Slack
    • 1
  • Rajeev Ramchand
    • 2
  • Melissa Finucane
    • 2
  • Matthew R. Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.RAND CorporationArlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations