Angrist, J. (1988). Estimating the labor market impact of voluntary military service using social security data on military applicants. Econometrica, 66(2), 249–288.
Armor, D., & Gilroy, C. (2010). Changing minority representation in the U.S. military. Armed Forces & Society, 36(2), 223–249.
Autor, D., Katz, L., & Kearney, M. (2008). Trends in U.S. wage inequality: Revising the revisionists. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 90(2), 300–323.
Bennet, P., & Xie, Y. (2003). Revisiting racial differences in college attendance: The role of historically black colleges and universities. American Sociological Review, 68, 567–580.
Boucai, M. (2007). Balancing your strengths against your felonies: Considerations for military recruitment of ex-offenders. University of Miami Law Review, 61(4), 997–1032.
Bouffard, L. (2005). The military as a bridging environment in criminal careers: Differential outcomes of the military experience. Armed Forces & Society, 31(2), 273–295.
Browning, H., Lopreato, S. C., & Poston, D. L., Jr. (1973). Income and veteran status: Variations among Mexican Americans, blacks and Anglos. American Sociological Review, 38(1), 74–85.
Cameron, S. V., & Heckman, J. J. (1993). The nonequivalence of high school equivalents. Journal of Labor Economics, 11(1), 1–47.
Cordero-Guzmán, H. (2001). Cognitive skills, test scores, and social stratification: The role of family and school-level resources on racial/ethnic differences in scores on standardized tests (AFQT). The Review of Black Political Economy, 28(4), 31–71.
Craig, J., & Connell, N. (2015). The all-volunteer force and crime: The effects of military participation on offending behavior. Armed Forces & Society, 41(2), 329–351.
Crutchfield, R., & Pitchford, S. (1997). Work and crime: The effects of labor stratification. Social Forces, 76(1), 93–118.
DiPrete, T., & Eirich, G. (2006). Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 271–297.
Elder, G. H., Wang, L., Spence, N. J., Adkins, D. E., & Brown, T. H. (2010). Pathways to all-volunteer military. Social Science Quarterly, 91(2), 455–475.
Elman, C., & O’Rand, A. M. (2007). The effects of social origins, life events, and institutional sorting on adults’ school transitions. Social Science Research, 36, 1276–1299.
Erola, J., Jalonen, S., & Lehti, H. (2016). Parental education, class and income over early life course and children’s achievement. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 44, 33–43.
Gangl, M. (2006). Scar effects of unemployment: An assessment of institutional complementarities. American Sociological Review, 71, 986–1013.
GED Testing Service. (2012). Annual Statistical Report on the GED Test. https://www.gedtestingservice.com/uploads/files/8d4558324628dfcf1011dc738acca6eb.pdf
Ghayad, R., & Dickens, W. (2012). What can we learn by disaggregating the unemployment-vacancy relationship? (pp. 12–13). No: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston Public Policy Brief.
Gupta, S., & Lundquist, J. H. (2013). The converging proportions of the U.S. adult population in the military and in prison, 1960 to 2010. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans.
Goffman, A. (2009). On the run: Wanted men in a Philadelphia Ghetto. American Sociological Review, 74(3), 339–357.
Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (1997). Mean streets: Youth crime and homelessness. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Han, J. (2017). African Americans in the U.S. Military. In D. Rohall, M. G. Ender, & M. D. Matthews (Eds.), Inclusion in the American Military: A force for diversity (pp. 19–36). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
Han, J. (2018). Where Did All Those Prisoners Come From?: Military to Prison Channeling of Black Male Youths 1980-2010. Working Paper.
Holzer, H., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. (2003). Employment Barriers Facing Ex-Offenders. Paper presented at the Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable, New York.
Hout, M. (2012). Social and economic returns to college education in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 379–400.
Jackman, R., & Layard, R. (1991). Does long-term unemployment reduce a person’s chance of a job? A time-series test. Economica, 58(229), 93–106.
Jepsen, C., Mueser, P., & Troske, K. (2012). Labor-market returns to the GED using regression discontinuity analysis. The Institute for the Study of Labor’s (IZA) Discussion Paper, No. 6758.
Kleykamp, M. (2006). College, jobs, or the military? Enlistment during a time of war. Social Science Quarterly, 87(2), 272–290.
Kleykamp, M. (2009). A great place to start? The effect of prior military service on hiring. Armed Forces & Society, 35(2), 266–285.
Kleykamp, M. (2010). Where did the soldiers go? The effects of military downsizing on college enrollment and employment. Social Science Research, 39, 477–490.
Kosanovich, K., & Sherman, E. T. (2015). Trends in long-term unemployment. New York: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Spotlight on Statistics.
Lundquist, J. H. (2008). Ethnic and gender satisfaction in the military: The effect of a meritocratic institution. American Sociological Review, 73(3), 477–496.
Lundquist, J. H., Pager, D., & Strader, E. (2018). Does a criminal past predict worker performance? Evidence from one of America’s Largest Employers. Social Forces, 96(3), 1039–1068.
Lutz, A. (2008). Who joins the military?: A look at race, class, and immigration status. Journal of Political and Military Sociology, 36(2), 167–188.
MacLean, A., & Elder, G., Jr. (2007). Military service in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 33, 175–196.
Mangum, S. L., & Ball, D. E. (1987). Military skill training: Some evidence of transferability. Armed Forces and Society, 13, 425–441.
Mare, R., & Winship, C. (1984). The paradox of lessening racial inequality and joblessness among black youth: Enrollment, enlistment, and employment, 1964-1981. American Sociological Review, 49, 39–55.
Mayer, K. U. (2009). New directions in life course research. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 413–433.
Merolla, D., & Jackson, O. (2014). Understanding differences in college enrollment: Race, class and cultural capital. Race and Social Problems, 6(3), 280–292.
Newman, K. (1999). No shame in my game: The working poor in the inner city. New York: Russell Sage.
Pager, D. (2009). Marked: Race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Perna, L. W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 71(2), 117–141.
Pettit, B., & Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69(2), 151–169.
Pettit, B., & Lyons, C. J. (2007). Status and the Stigma of incarceration: The labor-market effects of incarceration, by race, class, and criminal involvement. In S. Bushway, M. A. Stoll, D. F. Weiman (Eds.), Barriers to reentry? The labor market for released prisoners in post-industrial America (pp. 203–226). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Phillips, R. L., Andrisani, P. J., Daymont, T. N., & Gilroy, C. L. (1992). The economic returns to military service: Race-Ethnic differences. Social Science Quarterly, 73, 340–359.
Rodgers, W., & Spriggs, W. (1996). What does the AFQT really measure: Race, wages, schooling and the AFQT Scores. The Review of Black Political Economy, 24(4), 13–46.
Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (1996). Socioeconomic achievement in the life course of disadvantaged men: Military service as a turning point, circa 1940–1965. American Sociological Review, 61(3), 347–367.
Sampson, R., & Wilson, W. J. (1995). Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality. In J. Hagan & R. D. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 37–54). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Shanahan, M. (2000). Pathways to adulthood in changing societies: Variability and mechanisms in life course perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 667–692.
Shimer, R. (2008). The probability of finding a job. American Economic Review, 98(2), 268–273.
Sutton, J. (2000). Imprisonment and social classification in five common-law democracies, 1955–1985. American Journal of Sociology, 106(2), 350–386.
Teachman, J. (2007a). Race, military service, and marital timing: Evidence from the NLSY-79. Demography, 44, 389–404.
Teachman, J. (2007b). Veterans in state and federal prison in 2004. Washington, DC: Special Report.
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2003). Education and Correctional Populations. Washington, DC: Special Report.
U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2007). Veterans in state and federal prison in 2004, Special Report. Washington, DC.
U.S. Department of Defense. (2000). Population representation in the military services.
Weiss, F., & Roksa, J. (2016). New dimensions of educational inequality: Changing patterns of combining college and work in the U.S. over time. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 44, 44–53.
Western, B. (2002). The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. American Sociological Review, 67, 526–546.
Western, B. (2007). Punishment and inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Western, B., & Beckett, K. (1999). How unregulated is the U.S. labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution. American Journal of Sociology, 104(4), 1030–1060.
Wilson, W. J. (1978). The declining significance of race: Blacks and changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, W. J. (2011). The declining significance of race: Revisited & revised. Dædalus, 40(2), 55–79.