Life Course Changes in Smoking by Gender and Education: A Cohort Comparison Across France and the United States
- 370 Downloads
Widening of educational disparities and a narrowing female advantage in mortality stem in good part from disparities in smoking. The changes in smoking and mortality disparities across cohorts and countries have been explained by an epidemic model of cigarette use but are also related to life course changes. To better describe and understand changing disparities over the life course, we compare age patterns of smoking in three cohorts and two nations (France and the US) using smoking history measures from the 2010 French health barometer (N = 20,940) and the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey Sample Adult File (N = 20,444). The results demonstrate statistically significant widening of gender and educational differences from adolescence to early and middle adulthood, thus accentuating the disparities already emerging during adolescence. In addition, the widening disparities over the life course have been changing across cohorts: age differences in educational disparities have grown in recent cohorts (especially in France), while age differences in gender disparities have narrowed. The findings highlight the multiple sources of inequality in smoking and health in high-income nations.
KeywordsSmoking Cohort Life course Education Gender
This Project received travel support from the Institut National d’Etudes Demographiques Direction des Relations Internationales et des Partenariates, and funding from the Institut National d’Etudes Demographiques and Institut National du Cancer (COTCEDIS Project “Consommation de tabac et de cannabis: evolution et dynamiques de construction des inegalites sociales,” Grant No. 2011-250).
- Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L. D., Bryant, A. L., & Merlin, A. C. (2002). The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Beck, F., Gautier, A., Guignard, R., & Richard, J.-B. (2011a). Une méthode de prise en compte du dégroupage total dans le plan de sondage des enquêtes téléphoniques auprès des ménages. In M.-E. Tremblay, P. Lavallée, & M. El Hadj Tirari (Eds.), Pratiques et méthodes de sondage (pp. 310–314). Paris: Dunod.Google Scholar
- Beck, F., Guignard, R., Richard, J.-B., Tovar, M.-L., & Spilka, S. (2011b). Les niveaux d’usage des drogues en france en 2010—exploitation des données du baromètre santé. Tendances, 76, 1–6.Google Scholar
- Ferrence, R. G. (1989). Deadly fashion: The rise and fall of cigarette smoking in North America. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
- Forey, B., Hamling, J., Hamling, J., Thornton, A., & Lee, P. (2016). International smoking statistics: WEB edition 2006–2015. http://www.pnlee.co.uk/ISS3.htm.
- Hibeli, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A., & Kraus, L. (2012). The 2011 ESPAD report: Substance use among students in 36 European countries. http://espad.org/Uploads/ESPAD_reports/2011/The_2011_ESPAD_Report_FULL_2012_10_29.pdf.
- Johnston, L. D. (2001). Changing demographic patterns of adolescent smoking over the past 23 years: National trends from the Monitoring the Future study. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph, 14, 9–33.Google Scholar
- Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Miech, R. A., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2014). Monitoring the future national results on drug use: 1975–2013: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics. (2013). 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) public use data release: NHIS survey description.ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/NHIS/2010/srvydesc.pdf .
- Nichter, M. (2015). Lighting up: The rise of social smoking on college campuses. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
- Oaks, L. (2001). Smoking and pregnancy: The politics of fetal protection. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Potter, B. K., Pederson, L. L., Chan, S. S. H., Aubut, J.-A. L., & Koval, J. J. (2004). Does a relationship exist between body weight, concerns about weight, and smoking among adolescents? An integration of the literature with an emphasis on gender. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6(3), 397–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reid, J. L., Hammond, D., Boudreau, C., Fong, G., & Siahpush, M. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in quit intentions, quit attempts, and smoking abstinence among smokers in four western countries: Findings from the international tobacco control four country survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 12(Suppl. 1), S20–S33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Slovic, P. (Ed.). (2001). Smoking: Risk, perception, and policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Staff, J., Schulenberg, J. E., Maslowsky, J., Bachman, J. G., O’Malley, P. M., Maggs, J. L., et al. (2010). Substance use changes and social role transitions: Proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 917–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). (2014). Smoking—50 Years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). Deaths from tobacco in Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/tobacco/news/news/2012/04/deaths-from-tobacco-in-europe.