Determinants of Mexican-Origin Dropout: The Roles of Mexican Latino/a Destinations and Immigrant Generation
Adolescents of Mexican origin have higher than average school dropout rates, but the risk of school non-enrollment among this subgroup varies substantially across geographic areas. This study conducts a multilevel logistic regression analysis of data from the 2005–2009 American Community Survey to evaluate whether spatial heterogeneity in school non-enrollment rates among Mexican-origin youth (n = 71,269) can be attributed to the histories of states and local areas as Mexican Latino/a receiving gateways. This study also determines whether the association between new destinations and school non-enrollment varies within the Mexican-origin population by nativity and duration of residence. Net of background controls, the risk of non-enrollment does not differ significantly between Mexican-origin youth living in states that are newer Mexican Latino/a gateways versus those in more established destinations, in part because Mexican-origin school non-enrollment rates are heterogeneous across newer destination states. At the more local Public Use Microdata Area level, however, Mexican-origin youth in newer gateways have a higher risk of non-enrollment than those in established destinations, revealing the importance of local-level contexts as venues for integration. The disparity in non-enrollment between Mexican-origin youth in new versus established destination PUMAs is apparent for all generational groups, but is widest among 1.25-generation adolescents who arrived in the country as teenagers, suggesting that local new destinations are particularly ill-equipped to deal with the educational needs of migrant newcomers.
KeywordsImmigration/migration Immigrant destinations Dropout Latinos/Hispanics
Funding was provided by the Institute of Education Sciences (Grant Nos. R305B090012, R305A150027) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Grant Nos. R24 HD042828, T32 HD007543, R24 HD42849, T32 HD007081-35).
- Bean, F. D., & Tienda, M. (1988). Hispanic population of the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Bell, B. A., Morgan, G. B., Kromrey, J. D., & Ferron, J. M. (2010). The impact of small cluster size on multilevel models: A Monte Carlo examination of two-level models with binary and continuous predictors. Retrieved from http://www.amstat.org/sections/srms/Proceedings/y2010/Files/308112_60089.pdf.
- Fry, R. (2011). The Hispanic diaspora and the public schools: Educating Hispanics. In Latinos and the economy (pp. 15–36). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Gouveia, L., Carranza, M. A., & Cogua, J. (2005). The Great Plains migration: Mexicanos and Latinos in Nebraska. In V. Zúñiga & R. Hernández-León (Eds.), New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States (pp. 23–49). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Hernández-León, R., & Zúñiga, V. (2005). Appalachia meets Aztlan: Mexican immigration and intergroup relations in Dalton, Georgia. In V. Zúñiga & R. Hernández-León (Eds.), New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States (pp. 244–274). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. J., Cullen, R. M., & Boswell, T. D. (1980). The changing demography of Spanish Americans. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Massey, D. S. (2008). New faces in new places: The changing geography of american immigration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Massey, D. S., & Capoferro, C. (2008). The geographic diversification of American immigration. In D. S. Massey (Ed.), New faces in new places: The changing geography of american immigration (pp. 25–50). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). The condition of education—Elementary and secondary education—Student effort, persistence and progress—Status dropout rates—Indicator May (2016). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_coj.asp.
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Ruggles, S. J., Alexander, J. T., Genadek, K., Goeken, R., Schroeder, M. B., & Sobek, M. (2010). Integrated public use microdata series: Version 5.0 [Machine-readable database]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Rumberger, R., & Lim, S. A. (2008). Why students drop out of school: A review of 25 years of research. Santa Barbara, CA: California Dropout Research Project. Retrieved from http://inpathways.net/researchreport15.pdf.
- Schneider, B., Martinez, S., & Owens, A. (2006). Barriers to educational opportunities for Hispanics in the United States. In M. Tienda & F. Mitchell (Eds.), Hispanics and the future of America (pp. 179–227). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Singer, A. (2004). The rise of new immigrant gateways. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2004/02/demographics-singer.
- Singer, A. (2014). Metropolitan immigrant gateways revisited, 2014. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2015/12/01-metropolitan-immigrant-gateways-revisited-singer.
- Telles, E. M., & Ortiz, V. (2008). Generations of exclusion: Mexican-Americans, assimilation, and race. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Terrazas, A. (2011). Immigrants in new-destination states. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/immigrants-new-destination-states.
- U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, marital status, and detailed age, 2005 annual averages [table]. Geographic profile of employment and unemployment. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/gps/#tables.
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). Percent of the total population 25 years and over with a Bachelor’s degree or higher by sex, for the United States, regions, and states: 1940 to 2000 [table]. Census 2000 PHC-T-41. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/census/halfcentury/tables.html.
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). Public use microdata areas (PUMAs). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/geo/reference/puma.html.
- Zúñiga, V., & Hernández-León, R. (2005). New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar