Advertisement

Population Research and Policy Review

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 243–277 | Cite as

Employment and Occupational Mobility among Recently Arrived Immigrants: The Spanish Case 1997–2007

  • Enrique Fernández-Macías
  • Rafael GrandeEmail author
  • Alberto del Rey Poveda
  • José-Ignacio Antón
Article

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to analyse occupational mobility among immigrants in Spain in two distinct stages: (1) comparing the immigrants’ first job in Spain with their profession in the country of origin and (2) comparing their current occupational status with the occupational status of the first job they held in Spain. We focus on immigrants who arrived in Spain during the “immigration boom” that took place between 1997 and 2007, using data from the 2007 National Survey on Immigration. For our analysis, we use occupational mobility tables and multi-variable models with occupational mobility as a dependent variable. Our results show that we can better understand the initial access of migrants to the Spanish labour market from the perspective of labour market segregation: for each gender, a particular sector/occupational level (construction and cleaning, respectively) played such a dominant role that it determined almost entirely the observed mobility pattern. We find some (upward) mobility opportunities after such initial strong segregation, which increased with length of residence; however, our results suggest that, even in this case, it is mostly limited to men and associated with the construction boom that finished abruptly in 2007.

Keywords

Occupational mobility Immigration Spain Gender Labour market segmentation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank constructive comments from four anonymous referees and the editor Stephanie Bohon and Rafael Grande, Alberto del Rey and José-Ignacio Antón gratefully acknowledge research funding from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Research Project CSO2010-16413).

References

  1. Antón,. J. I., Muñoz de Bustillo, R., & Carrera, M. (2012). Raining stones? Female immigrants in the Spanish labour market. Estudios de Economía, 39(1), 53–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, M., & Benjamin, D. (1997). The role of the family in immigrants’ labor-market activity: An evaluation of alternative explanations. American Economic Review, 87(4), 705–727.Google Scholar
  3. Bauer, T., & Zimmermann, K. F. (1999) Occupational mobility of ethnic migrants, IZA Discussion Paper, 58.Google Scholar
  4. Bettio, F., Simmonazi, A. M., & Villa, P. (2006). Change in care regimes and female migration: The ‘care drain’ in the Mediterranean. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(3), 271–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borjas,. G. J. (1987). Self-selection and the earnings of immigrants. American Economic Review, 77(4), 531–553.Google Scholar
  6. Bover, O., & Velilla, P. (2005). Migrations in Spain: Historical background and current trends. In K. Zimmermann (Ed.), European migration: What do we know? (pp. 389–414). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Caparrós, A., & Navarro, M. L. (2010). Movilidad ocupacional de los inmigrantes en España. Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación, 5, 873–890.Google Scholar
  8. Carrasco, R., Jimeno, J. F., & Ortega, A. C. (2008). The effect of immigration on the labor market performance of native-born workers: Some evidence for Spain. Journal of Population Economics, 21(3), 627–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiquiar, D., & Hanson, G. H. (2005). International migration, self-selection, and the distribution of wages: Evidence from Mexico and the United States. Journal of Political Economy, 113(2), 239–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiswick, B. R. (1978a). A longitudinal analysis of the occupational mobility of immigrants. In B. Dennis (Ed.), Proceedings of the 30th annual winter meeting, Industrial Relations Research Association (pp. 20–27). Madison, WI: IRRA.Google Scholar
  11. Chiswick, B. R. (1978b). The effect of Americanization on the earnings of foreign-born men. Journal of Political Economy, 86(5), 897–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chiswick, B. R. (1999). Are immigrants favorably self-selected? American Economic Review, 89(2), 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chiswick, B. R., Cohen, Y., & Zach, T. (1997). The labor market status of immigrants: Effects of the unemployment rate at arrival and duration of residence. Industrial & Labour Relations Review, 50(2), 289–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chiswick, B. R., Lee, Y. L., & Miller, P. W. (2005). Longitudinal analysis of immigrant occupational mobility: A test of the immigrant assimilation hypothesis. International Migration Review, 39(2), 332–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Constant, A., & Massey, D. (2005). Labor market segmentation and the earnings of German guestworkers. Population Research and Policy Review, 24(5), 483–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Del Río, C., & Alonso-Villar, O. (2012). Occupational segregation of immigrant women in Spain. Feminist Economics, 18(2), 91–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Domingo, A., & Gil-Alonso, F. (2007). Immigration and changing labor force structure in the Southern European Union. Population (English Edition), 62(4), 709–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duleep, H., & Dowhan, D. J. (2002). Revisiting the family investment model with longitudinal data the earnings growth of immigrant and U.S.-born women. Bonn: IZA.Google Scholar
  19. Duleep, H. O., & Regets, M. C. (1999). Immigrants and human-capital investment. American Economic Review, 89(2), 186–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duleep, H. O., & Sanders, S. (1993). The decision to work by married immigrant women. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46(4), 677–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farré, L., González, L., & Ortega, F. (2011). Immigration, family responsibilities and the labor supply of skilled native women. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 11(1), 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernández, C., & Ortega, C. (2008). Labor market assimilation of immigrants in Spain: Employment at the expense of bad job-matches? Spanish Economic Review, 10(2), 83–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flippen, C. A. (2013). Intersectionality at work: Determinants of labor supply among immigrant Hispanic women. Paper presented in Population Association of American 2013 annual meeting program, April 11–13, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  24. Furtado, D., & Theodoropoulos, N. (2010). Why does intermarriage increase immigrant employment? The role of networks. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 10(1), 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ganzeboom, H. B., & Treiman, D. J. (1996). Internationally comparable measures of occupational status for the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupations. Social Science Research, 25(3), 201–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goel, D., & Lang, K. (2010). Social ties and the job search of recent immigrants, NBER Working Paper, 15186.Google Scholar
  27. Gordon, I. (1995). Migration in a segmented labor market. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 20(2), 139–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gordon, D. M., Edwards, R., & Reich, M. (1982). Segmented work, divided workers: The historical transformation of labor in the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Grande, R., & Del Rey, A. (2012). Remesas, proyectos migratorios y relaciones familiares. El caso de los latinoamericanos y los Caribeños en España. Papeles de Población, 18(74), 237–272.Google Scholar
  30. Izquierdo, M., Lacuesta, A., & Vegas, R. (2009). Assimilation of immigrants in Spain: A longitudinal analysis. Labour Economics, 16(6), 669–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalter, F., & Kogan, I. (2002). Ethnic inequalities at labour market entry in Belgium and Spain. Mannheim: MZES.Google Scholar
  32. Kogan, I. (2004). Last hired, first fired? The unemployment dynamics of male immigrants in Germany. European Sociological Review, 20(5), 445–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kossoudji, S. A., & Cobb-Clark, D. A. (2000). IRCA’s impact on the occupational concentration and mobility of newly-legalized Mexican men. Journal of Population Economics, 13(1), 81–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lam, K., & Liu, P. (2002). Earnings divergence of immigrants. Journal of Labor Economics, 20(1), 86–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Long, J. E. (1980). The effect of Americanization on earnings: Some evidence for women. Journal of Political Economy, 88(3), 620–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahuteau, S., & Junankar, P. N. (2008). Do migrants get good jobs in Australia? The role of ethnic networks in job search. Economic Record, 84(Supl. 1), S115–S130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Massey, D., Alarcón, R., Durand, J., & González, H. (1987). Return to Aztlan: The social process of international migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  38. Mincer, J. (1978). Family migration decisions. Journal of Political Economy, 86(5), 749–773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mullan, B. P. (1989). The impact of social networks on the occupational status of migrants. International Migration, 27(1), 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Muñoz de Bustillo, R., & Antón, J. I. (2010). De la España que emigra a la España que acoge: contexto, dimensión y características de la migración latinoamericana en España. América Latina Hoy, 55, 15–39.Google Scholar
  41. Muñoz de Bustillo, R., & Antón, J. I. (2011). From the highest employment growth to the deepest fall: Economic crisis and labour inequalities in Spain. In D. Vaughan-Whitehead (Ed.), Work inequalities in the crisis. Evidence from Europe (pp. 393–444). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  42. Parella, S. (2003). Mujer, inmigrante y trabajadora: la triple discriminación. Barcelona: Anthropos.Google Scholar
  43. Patel, K., & Vella, F. (2013). Immigrant networks and their implications for occupational choice and wages. Review of Economics and Statistics, 95(4), 1249–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Piore, M. J. (1975). Notes for a theory of labor market stratification. In R. C. Edwards, M. Reich, & D. M. Gordon (Eds.), Labor market segmentation (pp. 125–149). Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  45. Piore, M. J. (1979). Birds of passage: Migrant labor and industrial societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Portes, A., & Borocz, J. (1989). Contemporary immigration: Theoretical perspectives on its determinants and modes of incorporation. International Migration Review, 23(3), 606–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1990). Immigrant America: A portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Powers, M. G., & Seltzer, W. (1998). Occupational status and mobility among undocumented immigrants by gender. International Migration Review, 32(1), 21–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Redstone Akresh, I. (2006). Occupational mobility among legal immigrants to the United States. International Migration Review, 40(4), 854–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reher, D., & Requena, M. (2009). The National Immigrant Survey of Spain. A new data source for migration studies in Europe. Demographic Research, 20(12), 253–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reher, D. S., Requena, M., & Sanz, A. (2011). ¿España en la encrucijada?: consideraciones sobre el cambio de ciclo migratorio. Revista Internacional de Sociología, 69(1), 9–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2012). Wage and occupational assimilation by skill level: Migration policy lessons from Spain. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 1(8).Google Scholar
  53. Rooth, D., & Ekberg, J. (2006). Occupational mobility for immigrants in Sweden. International Migration, 44(2), 57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simón, H., Ramos, R., & Sanromá, E. (2014). Immigrant occupational mobility: Longitudinal evidence for Spain. European Journal of Population, 30(2), 223–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stanek, M., & Veira, A. (2012). Ethnic niching in a segmented labour market: Evidence from Spain. Migration Letters, 9(3), 249–262.Google Scholar
  56. Sullivan, T. A. (1984). The occupational prestige of women immigrants: A comparison of Cubans and Mexicans. International Migration Review, 18(4), 1045–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vidal, E., Domingo, A., & Gil-Alonso, F. (2009). The non-EU-25 female population in Spain: A factor analysis of labour market integration at regional level. In M. Kuhn & C. Ochsen (Eds.), Labour markets and demographic change (pp. 211–234). Rostock: Demografisher Wandel, Hintergrunde und Herausforderungen, VS Verlag.Google Scholar
  58. Vono, D., & Vidal, E. (2012). The impact of informal networks on labour mobility: Immigrants’ first job in Spain. Migration Letters, 9(3), 237–247.Google Scholar
  59. Weiss, Y., Sauer, R. M., & Gotlibovski, M. (2003). Immigration, search, and loss of skill. Journal of Labour Economics, 21(3), 557–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yamauchi, F., & Tanabe, S. (2008). Nonmarket networks among migrants: Evidence from metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Journal of Population Economics, 21(3), 649–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Enrique Fernández-Macías
    • 1
  • Rafael Grande
    • 2
    Email author
  • Alberto del Rey Poveda
    • 2
  • José-Ignacio Antón
    • 2
  1. 1.European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working ConditionsDublinIreland
  2. 2.University of SalamancaSalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations