Advertisement

Population and Environment

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 185–206 | Cite as

Household migration as a livelihood adaptation in response to a natural disaster: Nicaragua and Hurricane Mitch

  • Peter LoebachEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This study uses data drawn from the Nicaragua Living Standards and Measurement Study Survey to examine international livelihood migrations from Nicaragua in the years surrounding the rapid-onset Hurricane Mitch event of 1998. The likelihood of an international livelihood migration occurring between the years 1996 and 2001 is modeled utilizing discrete-time event history analysis. While findings indicate no influence of Hurricane Mitch on likelihood of livelihood migration, the Mitch event is associated with increased migrant selectivity according to past household migration experience for migrations to Costa Rica, suggesting these migrations to be livelihood adaptations of those with high capability in the form of access to migrant social networks. In addition, the Mitch event is found to be associated with decreased likelihood of migration by small business owners. This finding is interpreted as reflecting business owning households choosing to forego sending migrants to instead have ‘all hands on deck’ to assist with business operations.

Keywords

International migration Disasters Natural hazards Livelihoods Vulnerability 

References

  1. Allison, P. D. (2014). Event history analysis and survival analysis. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Axinn, W. G., Pearce, L. D., & Ghimire, D. (1999). Innovations in life history calendar applications. Social Science Research, 28(3), 243–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adger, W. N., Paavola, J., & Huq, S. (2006). Toward justice in adaptation to climate change. In W. N. Adger (Ed.), Fairness in adaptation to climate change (pp. 1–20). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  4. Banco Nacional de Nicaragua. (1999). Area económica. Accessed http://www.bcn.gob.ni.
  5. Banerjee, S., Gerlitz, J. Y., & Hoermann, B. (2011). Labour migration as a response strategy to water hazards in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas. Kathmandu: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).Google Scholar
  6. Bebbington, A. (1999). Capitals and capabilities: A framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. World Development, 27(12), 2021–2044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Black, R., Bennett, S. R., Thomas, S. M., & Beddington, J. R. (2011). Climate change: Migration as adaptation. Nature, 478(7370), 447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chambers, R., & Conway, G. (1992). Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st century. IDS discussion paper. 26. London, Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  9. Christoplos, I., Rodríguez, T., Schipper, E. L. F., Narvaez, E. A., Mejia, B., Maria, K., & Pérez, F. J. (2010). Learning from recovery after Hurricane Mitch. Disasters, 34(s2), S202–S219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corral, L., & Reardon, T. (2001). Rural nonfarm incomes in Nicaragua. World Development, 29(3), 427–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 34(2), 187–220.Google Scholar
  12. Curran, S. R., Garip, F., Chung, C. Y., & Tangchonlatip, K. (2005). Gendered migrant social capital: Evidence from Thailand. Social Forces, 84(1), 225–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curran, S. R., & Rivero-Fuentes, E. (2003). Engendering migrant networks: The case of Mexican migration. Demography, 40(2), 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Mel, S., McKenzie, D., & Woodruff, C. (2012). One-time transfers of cash or capital have long-lasting effects on microenterprises in Sri Lanka. Science, 335(6071), 962–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deshingkar, P. (2012). Environmental risk, resilience and migration: implications for natural resource management and agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 7(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Durand, J., Massey, D. S., & Zenteno, R. (2001). Mexican immigration to the United States: Continuities and changes. Latin American Research Review, 36(1), 107–127.Google Scholar
  17. Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (1999). Nicaragua: Assessment of the damage caused by Hurricane Mitch 1998: Implications for economic and social development and for the Environment. Mexico City: ECLAC.Google Scholar
  18. Ensor, M. O. (2009). The legacy of Hurricane Mitch: Lessons from post-disaster reconstruction in Honduras. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  19. Faist, T., & Schade, J. (2013). Disentangling migration and climate change: Methodologies, political discourses and human rights. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feliciano, C. (2005). Educational selectivity in US immigration: How do immigrants compare to those left behind? Demography, 42(1), 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. H. (2001). Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data—or tears: An application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography, 38(1), 115–132.Google Scholar
  22. Findley, S. E. (1994). Does drought increase migration? A study of migration from rural Mali during the 1983–1985 drought. International Migration Review, 28(3), 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Funkhouser, E. (1992). Migration from Nicaragua: Some recent evidence. World Development, 20(8), 1209–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Funkhouser, E. (2006). The effect of emigration on the labor market outcomes of the sender household: a longitudinal approach using data from Nicaragua. Well-Being and Social Policy, 2(2), 5–25.Google Scholar
  25. Funkhouser, E. (2009). The choice of migration destination: A longitudinal approach using pre-migration outcomes. Review of Development Economics, 13(4), 626–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fussell, E., Hunter, L. M., & Gray, C. L. (2014). Measuring the environmental dimensions of human migration: The demographer’s toolkit. Global Environmental Change, 28, 182–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fussell, E., & Massey, D. S. (2004). The limits to cumulative causation: International migration from Mexican urban areas. Demography, 41(1), 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fussell, E., Sastry, N., & VanLandingham, M. (2010). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Population and Environment, 31, 20–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gemenne, Francois. (2011). Why the numbers don’t add up: A review of estimates and predictions of people displaced by environmental changes. Global Environmental Change, 21(7), s41–s49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gray, C., Frankenberg, E., Gillespie, T., Sumantri, C., & Thomas, D. (2014). Studying displacement after a disaster using large-scale survey methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104(3), 594–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gray, C., & Mueller, V. (2012a). Drought and population mobility in rural Ethiopia. World Development, 40(1), 134–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gray, C. L., & Mueller, V. (2012b). Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(16), 6000–6005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guha-Sapir, D., Hargitt, D., & Hoyois, P. (2004). Thirty years of natural disasters 1974–2003: The numbers. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.Google Scholar
  34. Halliday, T. (2006). Migration, risk, and liquidity constraints in El Salvador. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 54(4), 893–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Henry, S., Schoumaker, B., & Beauchemin, C. (2004). The impact of rainfall on the first out-migration: A multi-level event-history analysis in Burkina Faso. Population and Environment, 25(5), 423–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunter, L. M., Murray, S., & Riosmena, F. (2013). Rainfall patterns and US migration from rural Mexico. International Migration Review, 47(4), 874–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos (INEC). (2001). Encuesta Nacional de Nogares Sobres Medicion de Nivel de Vida, EMNV 2001. Nicaragua: INECGoogle Scholar
  38. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (1990). Climate change: The IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jakobsen, K. T. (2012). In the eye of the storm—The welfare impacts of a hurricane. World Development, 40, 2578–2589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jülich, S. (2011). Drought triggered temporary migration in an East Indian village. International Migration, 49(s1), e189–e199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kampadia, Kamal. (2015). Sri Lankan livelihoods after the tsunami: Searching for entrepreneurs unveiling relations of power. Disasters, 39(1), 25–50.Google Scholar
  42. Kleinbaum, D. G., & Klein, M. (2005). Survival analysis. A self-learning approach. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Lane, H. (2001). Sustainable development versus economic growth: A case study on natural disaster in Nicaragua. The Journal of Environment & Development, 9(2), 172–182.Google Scholar
  44. Mallick, B. (2014). Cyclone shelters and their locational suitability: An empirical analysis from coastal Bangladesh. Disasters, 38(3), 654–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Massey, D. S. (1990). Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Population Index, 56(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Massey, D. S., & Espinosa, K. E. (1997). What’s driving Mexico-US migration? A theoretical, empirical, and policy analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 102(4), 939–999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Massey, D. S., Fischer, M. J., & Capoferro, C. (2006). International migration and gender in Latin America: A comparative analysis. International Migration, 44, 63–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Massey, D. S., Goldring, L., & Durand, J. (1994). Continuities in transnational migration: An analysis of nineteen Mexican communities. American Journal of Sociology, 99(6), 1492–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McLeman, R. A. (2010). Impacts of population change on vulnerability and the capacity to adapt to climate change and variability: a typology based on lessons from “a hard country”. Population and Environment, 31(5), 286–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. McLeman, R. A., & Hunter, L. M. (2010). Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: Insights from analogues. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(3), 450–461.Google Scholar
  51. Monge Gonzalez, R., Torres, O. W., & Aguilar, J. C. V. (2009). South-south remittances: Importance of the Costa Rica-Nicaragua corridor. San Jose: Academia de Centroamerica.Google Scholar
  52. Montgomery, M. R., Gragnolati, M., Burke, K. A., & Paredes, E. (2000). Measuring living standards with proxy variables. Demography, 37(2), 155–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Morris, S. S., Neidecker-Gonzales, O., Carletto, C., Munguia, M., Medina, J. M., & Wodon, Q. (2002). Hurricane Mitch and the livelihoods of the rural poor in Honduras. World Development, 30(1), 49–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Otterstrom, S. M. (2008). Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica during the 1990s: Gender differences and geographic expansion. Journal of Latin American Geography, 7(2), 7–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paavola, J., & Adger, W. N. (2006). Fair adaptation to climate change. Ecological Economics, 56(4), 594–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Palloni, A., Massey, D. S., Ceballos, M., Espinosa, K., & Spittel, M. (2001). Social capital and international migration: A test using information on family networks. American Journal of Sociology, 106(5), 1262–1298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Piguet, E. (2010). Linking climate change, environmental degradation, and migration: A methodological overview. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(4), 517–524.Google Scholar
  58. Portes, A. (1979). Illegal immigration and the international system, lessons from recent legal Mexican immigrants to the United States. Social Problems, 26(4), 425–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. (2006). Immigrant America: A Portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  60. Runyan, R. C. (2006). Small business in the face of crisis: Identifying barriers to recovery from a natural disaster. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14(1), 12–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sanders, J. M., & Nee, V. (1996). Immigrant self-employment: The family as social capital and the value of human capital. American Sociological Review, 61(2), 231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods: A framework for analysis. Working Paper 72, Institute for Development Studies, Brighton, UK.Google Scholar
  63. Seelke, C. R. (2009). Nicaragua: Political situation and U.S. relations. RS22836, CRS Report for Congress, Washington DC: Congressional Research Service.Google Scholar
  64. Stark, O. (1991). The migration of labor. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  65. Steele, D. (2001). Supplemental information document: Nicaragua living standards measurement study survey, Post-Mitch survey 1999: World Bank.Google Scholar
  66. Van den Berg, M. (2010). Household income strategies and natural disasters: Dynamic livelihoods in rural Nicaragua. Ecological Economics, 69(3), 592–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Van den Berg, M., & Burger, K. (2008). Household consumption and natural disasters: The case of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua. Paper presented at the 12th EAAE Congress ‘People, Food and Environments: Global Trends and European Strategies’, Gent, Belgium.Google Scholar
  68. Vanwey, L. K. (2004). Altruistic and contractual remittances between male and female migrants and households in rural Thailand. Demography, 41(4), 739–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Webb, G. R., Tierney, K. J., & Dahlhamer, J. M. (2000). Businesses and disasters: Empirical patterns and unanswered questions. Natural Hazards Review, 1(2), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (1994). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters. New York: Taylor and Francis.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wrathall, D. J. (2012). Migration amidst social-ecological regime shift: The search for stability in Garifuna villages of northern Honduras. Human Ecology, 40(4), 583–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang, Y., Lindell, M. K., & Prater, C. S. (2009). Vulnerability of community businesses to environmental disasters. Disasters, 33(1), 38–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zimmer, Z., Korinek, K., Knodel, J., & Chayovan, N. (2008). Migrant interactions with elderly parents in rural Cambodia and Thailand. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(3), 585–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and AnthropologyWeber State UniversityOgdenUSA

Personalised recommendations