Population and Environment

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 524–553 | Cite as

Rural–urban migration, agrarian change, and the environment in Kenya: a critical review of the literature

Review

Abstract

The nexus between migration dynamics and environmental change has drawn the attention of many researchers in the recent past. While the majority of studies focus on the impact of the environment on migration decisions, less emphasis has been placed on the feedback effect of migration on the environment in rural sending areas. This article provides a critical review of this relationship by focusing on the rich literature on rural–urban migration of smallholder households in Kenya and its effects on rural environments. The article argues that there are distinct relations between migration, agricultural change and the environment. These are mediated in varying degrees by flows of remittances, loss of labor, socioeconomic stratification, gender dynamics, and cultural factors. Overly generalizing assumptions about these relations, however, fail to grasp their complexity. We propose employing a translocal perspective to enrich future analysis and enhance the understanding of migration–environmental interactions.

Keywords

Migration Remittances Land-use Translocality Demographic and cultural change East Africa 

References

  1. Aboud, A., Sofranko, A. J., & Ndiaye, S. (1996). The effect of gender on adoption of conservation practices by heads of farm households in Kenya. Society & Natural Resources, 9(5), 447–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamo, S., & Izazola, H. (2010). Human migration and the environment. Population and Environment, 32(2), 105–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agesa, R. (2004). One family, two households: Rural to urban migration in Kenya. Review of Economics of the Household, 2(2), 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbieri, A., Domingues, E., Queiroz, B., Ruiz, R., Rigotti, J., Carvalho, J., et al. (2010). Climate change and population migration in Brazil’s Northeast: Scenarios for 2025–2050. Population and Environment, 31(5), 344–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bardsley, D., & Hugo, G. (2010). Migration and climate change: Examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making. Population and Environment, 32(2), 238–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bates, D. C. (2002). Environmental refugees? Classifying human migrations caused by environmental change. Population and Environment, 23(5), 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bates, R. (2005). Beyond the miracle of the market: The political economy of Agrarian development in Kenya (New ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bebbington, A. J., & Butterbury, S. P. J. (2001). Transnational livelihoods and landscapes: Political ecologies of globalization. Ecomene, 8(4), 369–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beguy, D., Bocquier, P., & Zulu, E. M. (2010). Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements. Demographic Research, 23(20), 549–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bigsten, A. (1996). The circular migration of smallholders in Kenya. Journal of African Economies, 5(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, R., Adger, W. N., Arnell, N. W., Dercon, S., Geddes, A., & Thomas, D. (2011). The effect of environmental change on human migration. Global Environmental Change, 21, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Black, R., Crush, J., Peberdy, S., Ammassari, S., McLean Hilker, L., Mouillesseaux, S., et al. (2006). Migration & development in Africa: An overview. Cape Town: Idasa.Google Scholar
  13. Bogardi, J., Renaud, F., Dun, O., Warner, K., & Afifi, T. (2008). Environmental migration: An overview and policy recommendations. In R. Stojanov & J. Novosák (Eds.), Migration, development and environment: Migration processes from the perspective of environmental change and development approach at the beginning of the 21st century (pp. 235–253). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Bourdieu, P. (2008) [1977]. Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brickell, K. & Datta, A. (2011). Introduction: Translocal geographies. In K. Brickell, & A. Datta (Eds.), Translocal geographies. spaces, places, connections (pp. 3–20). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  16. Bryceson, D. (2002). The scramble in Africa: Reorienting rural livelihoods. World Development, 30(2), 725–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Casey, E. S. (1996). How to get from space to place in a fairly short stretch of time. A phenomenological prolegomena. In S. Feld & K. H. Basso (Eds.), Senses of place (pp. 13–52). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, J. H. (2011). Migration, remittances, and household strategies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 40(1), 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, D. W., & Odhiambo, E. S. A. (1989). Siaya: The historical anthropology of an African landscape. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
  20. Collier, P., & Lal, D. (1984). Why poor people get rich: Kenya 1960–79. World Development, 12(10), 1007–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collier, P., & Lal, D. (1986). Labour and poverty in Kenya 1900–1980. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Conelly, W. (1994). Population pressure, labor availability, and agricultural disintensification: The decline of farming on Rusinga Island, Kenya. Human Ecology, 22(2), 145–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conelly, W. T., & Chaiken, M. S. (2000). Intensive farming, agro-diversity, and food security under conditions of extreme population pressure in Western Kenya. Human Ecology, 28(1), 19–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crowley, E. L., & Carter, S. E. (2000). Agrarian change and the changing relationships between toil and soil in Maragoli, Western Kenya (1900–1994). Human Ecology, 28(3), 383–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Curran, S. (2002). Migration, social capital, and the environment: Considering migrant selectivity and networks in relation to coastal ecosystems. Population and Development Review, 28 (Supplement: Population and Enviromnent: Methods of Analysis), 89–125.Google Scholar
  26. Davis, J., & Lopez-Carr, D. (2010). The effects of migrant remittances on population-environment dynamics in migrant origin areas: International migration, fertility, and consumption in highland Guatemala. Population and Environment, 32(2), 216–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Haas, H. (2008). Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. Working paper No. 9. International Migration Institute.Google Scholar
  28. Deshingkar, P. (2012). Environmental risk, resilience and migration: Implications for natural resource management and agriculture. Environmental Research Letters, 7.Google Scholar
  29. Djurfeldt, A. A., & Wambugu, S. K. (2011). In-kind transfers of maize, commercialization and household consumption in Kenya. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 5(3), 447–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Durand, J., Parrado, E. A., & Massey, D. S. (1996). Migradollars and development: A reconsideration of the Mexican case. International Migration Review, 30(2), 423–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ekbom, A., Knutsson, P., & Ovuka, M. (2001). Is sustainable development based on agriculture attainable in Kenya? A multidisciplinary case study of Murang’a district. Land Degradation and Development, 12(5), 435–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eriksen, S. H., Brown, K., & Kelly, P. M. (2005). The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. The Geographical Journal, 171(4), 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Evans, H. E., & Ngau, P. (1991). Rural-urban relations, household income diversification and agricultural productivity. Development and Change, 22(3), 519–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Falkingham, J., Chepngeno-Langat, G. & Evandrou, M. (2011). Outward migration from large cities: Are older migrants in Nairobi returning? Population, Space and Place (in press). doi:10.1002/psp.678.
  35. Feng, S., Krueger, A. B., & Oppenheimer, M. (2010). Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico–US cross-border migration. PNAS, 107(32), 14257–14262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Francis, E. (1995). Migration and changing divisions of labour: Gender relations and economic change in Koguta, Western Kenya. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 65(2), 197–216.Google Scholar
  37. Francis, E. (2002). Gender, migration and multiple livelihoods: Cases from Eastern and Southern Africa. Journal of Development Studies, 38(5), 167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Francis, E. & Hoddinott, J. (1993). Migration and changing divisions of labour: Gender relations and economic change in Koguta, Western Kenya. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 65(2), 197–216.Google Scholar
  39. Frayne, B. (2010). Pathways of food: mobility and food transfers in Southern African cities. IDPR, 32(3–4), 291–310.Google Scholar
  40. Freeman, H. A., Ellis, F., & Allison, E. (2004). Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Kenya. Development Policy Review, 22(2), 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Geschiere, P. & Gugler, J. (1998). The urban-rural connection: Changing issues of belonging and identification. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 68(3), 309–319.Google Scholar
  42. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society. Outline of the theory of structuration. Cambridge: Cambridge, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  43. Giesbert, L. (2007). Seeking opportunities: Migration as an income diversification strategy of households in Kakamega district, Kenya. GIGA Working Paper 58. Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA).Google Scholar
  44. Gould, W. T. S. (1985). Migration and development in Western Kenya, 1971–82: A retrospective analysis of primary school leavers. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 55(3), 262–285.Google Scholar
  45. Gould, W. T. S. (1994). Population growth, environmental stability and migration in Western Kenya: From malthus to boserup? In B. Zaba & J. Clarke (Eds.), Environment and population change (pp. 247–268). Liège: Derouaux Ordina Editions.Google Scholar
  46. Gould, W. T. S. (1995). Migration and recent economic and environmental change in East Africa. In J. Baker & T. A. Aina (Eds.), The migration experience in Africa (pp. 122–145). Uppsala: Nordiska Afrika institutet.Google Scholar
  47. Gray, C. L. (2011). Soil quality and human migration in Kenya and Uganda. Global Environmental Change, 21(2), 421–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Greiner, C. (2010). Patterns of translocality: Migration, livelihoods and identity in Northwest Namibia. Sociologus, 60(2), 131–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Greiner, C. (2011). Migration, translocal networks and stratification in Namibia. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 81(4), 606–627.Google Scholar
  50. Guarnizo, L. E., & Smith, M. P. (1998). The locations of transnationalism. In M. P. Smith & L. E. Guarnizo (Eds.), Transnationalism from below (pp. 3–34). New Brunswick, London: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  51. Gutmann, M., & Field, V. (2010). Katrina in historical context: Environment and migration in the US. Population and Environment, 31(1), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Harris, J. R., & Todaro, M. P. (1970). Migration, unemployment and development: A two-sector analysis. American Economic Review, 60(1), 126–142.Google Scholar
  53. Hartmann, B. (2010). Rethinking climate refugees and climate conflict: Rhetoric, reality and the politics of policy discourse. Journal of International Development, 22(2), 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hebinck, P. (2007). Investigating rural livelihoods and landscapes in Guquka and Koloni: An introduction. In P. Hebinck. & P. C. Lent (Eds.), Livelihoods and landscapes. The people of Guquka and Koloni and their resources (pp. 1–31). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  55. Henry, S., Piché, V., Ouédraogo, D., & Lambin, E. F. (2004). Descriptive analysis of the individual migratory pathways according to environmental typologies. Population and Environment, 25(5), 397–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hunter, L. M. (2005). Migration and environmental hazards. Population and Environment, 26(4), 273–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jaetzold, R., & Schmidt, M. (1983). Farm management handbooks of Kenya, Part C: Eastern and central provinces (Vol. 2). Nairobi: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Development Headquarters.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, G. E., & Whitelaw, W. E. (1974). Urban-rural income transfers in Kenya: An estimated-remittances function. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 22(3), 473–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jokisch, B. D. (2002). Migration and agricultural change: The case of smallholder agriculture in highland ecuador. Human Ecology, 30(4), 523–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jónsson, G. (2010). The environmental factor in migration dynamics—a review of African case studies. IMI Working Papers no. 21. International Migration Institute (IMI), University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  61. Kitching, G. (1980). Class and economic change in Kenya: The making of an African Bourgeoisie 1905–1970. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Kitching, G. (1985). Politics, method, and evidence in the “Kenya Debate”. In B. K. Campbell & H. Bernstein (Eds.), Contradictions of accumulation in Africa. Studies in economy and state. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Levitt, P. (2001). The transnational villagers. Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  64. Levitt, P., & Glick Schiller, N. (2004). Conceptualizing simultaneity: A transnational social field perspective on society. International Migration Review, 38, 1002–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis, L. A. (1985). Assessing soil loss in Kiambu and Murang’a Districts, Kenya. Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, 67(3/4), 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leys, C. (1971). Politics in Kenya: The development of peasant society. British Journal of Political Science, 1(103), 307–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Mabogunje, A. (1970). Systems approach to a theory of rural-urban migration. Geographic Analysis, 2(8), 1–18.Google Scholar
  68. MacKenzie, F. (1986). Local initiatives and national policy: Gender and agricultural change in Murang’a district, Kenya. Canadian Journal of African Studies, 20(3), 377–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mackenzie, F. (2003). Land tenure and biodiversity: An exploration in the political ecology of Murang’a district, Kenya. Human Organization, 62(3), 255–266.Google Scholar
  70. Mc Dowell, C. & De Haan, A. (1997). Migration and sustainable livelihoods: A critical review of the literature. IDS Working Paper no. 65. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  71. Mendola, M. (2012). Rural out-migration and economic development at origin. A review of the evidence. Journal of International Development, 24, 102–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore, E., & Smith, J. (1995). Climatic change and migration from Oceania: Implications for Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America. Population and Environment, 17(2), 105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moran-Taylor, M., & Taylor, M. (2010). Land and lena: Linking transnational migration, natural resources, and the environment in Guatemala. Population and Environment, 32(2), 198–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mortimore, M., & Tiffen, M. (2004). Introducing research into Policy: Lessons from district studies of dryland development in sub-Saharan Africa. Development Policy Review, 22(3), 259–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Morton, J. F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(50), 19680–19685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murton, J. (1999). Population growth and poverty in Machakos district, Kenya. The Geographical Journal, 165(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nyangena, W. (2008). Social determinants of soil and water conservation in rural Kenya. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 10(6), 745–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Laughlin, B. (1998). Missing men? The debate over rural poverty and women-headed households in Southern Africa. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 25(2), 1–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. O’Keefe, P. (1983). The causes, consequences and remedies of soil erosion in Kenya. Ambio, 12(6), 302–305.Google Scholar
  80. Okoba, B. O., & De Graaff, J. (2005). Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of soil erosion and conservation measures in the Central Highlands, Kenya. Land Degradation and Development, 16(5), 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Okoba, B. O., & Sterk, G. (2010). Catchment-level evaluation of farmers’ estimates of soil erosion and crop yield in the Central Highlands of Kenya. Land Degradation and Development, 21(4), 388–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Olson, J. M., Butt, B., Atieno, F., Maitima, J., Smucker, T. A., Muchungu, E., Murimi, G. & Xu, H. (2004). Multi-scale analysis of land use and management changes on the Eastern Slopes of Mt Kenya. Land Use Change Impacts and Dynamics (LUCID) Project Working Paper 20.Google Scholar
  83. Orvis, S. (1993). The Kenyan agrarian debate: A reappraisal. African Studies Review, 36(3), 23–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oucho, J. O. (2007). Migration and regional development in Kenya. Development, 50(4), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Owuor, S. O. (2007). Migrants, urban poverty and the changing nature of urban-rural linkages in Kenya. Development Southern Africa, 24(1), 109–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Papademetriou, D. G., & Martin, P. L. (1991). The unsettled relationship: Labour migration and economic development. New York: Green Wood Press.Google Scholar
  87. Parkin, D. (1975). Migration, settlement, and the politics of unemployment: A Nairobi case study. In D. Parkin (Ed), Town and country in Central and Eastern Africa. Studies presented and discussed at the twelfth international African seminar, Lusaka, September 1972 (pp. 145–155). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Parry, L., Day, B., Amaral, S., & Peres, C. (2010). Drivers of rural exodus from Amazonian headwaters. Population and Environment, 32(2), 137–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peil, M., & Sada, P. O. (1984). African urban society. Chichester/New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  90. Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, 98(6), 1320–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Potts, D. (2009). The slowing of sub-Saharan Africa’s urbanization: Evidence and implications for urban livelihoods. Environment and Urbanization, 21, 253–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pred, A. (1984). Place as historically contingent process: Structuration and the time-geography of becoming places. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 74(2), 279–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Qin, H. (2010). Rural-to-urban labor migration, household livelihoods, and the rural environment in Chongqing municipality, Southwest China. Human Ecology, 38(5), 675–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Robson, J., & Nayak, P. (2010). Rural out-migration and resource-dependent communities in Mexico and India. Population and Environment, 32(2), 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rocheleau, D. (2001). Complex communities and relational webs uncertainty, surprise and transformation in Machakos. IDS Bulletin, 32(4), 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rocheleau, D. E., Steinberg, P. E., & Benjamin, P. A. (1995). Environment, development, crisis, and crusade: Ukambani, Kenya, 1890–1990. World Development, 23(6), 1037–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ross, M. H., & Weisner, T. S. (1977). The rural-urban migrant network in Kenya: Some general implications. American Ethnologist, 4(2), 359–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sakdapolrak, P. (2008). Jenseits von “Push and Pull”. Internationale Arbeitsmigration als Strategie der Lebenssicherung in Thailand (Beyond “push and pull”. International labour migration as a livelihood strategy in Thailand). Internationales Asien Forum, 39(1/2), 81–105.Google Scholar
  99. Scherr, S. J. (1997). Meeting household needs: farmer tree-growing strategies in western Kenya. In M. J. E. Arnold & P. A. Dewees (Eds.), Farms, trees & farmers. Responses to agricultural intensification (pp. 141–173). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  100. Scherr, S. J. (2000). A downward spiral? Research evidence on the relationship between poverty and natural resource degradation. Food Policy, 25(4), 479–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schnegg, M., Pauli, J. & Greiner, C. (in print). Pastoral belonging: Causes and consequences of part-time pastoralism in North Western Namibia. In M. Bollig, H. -P. Wotzka & M. Schnegg (Eds.), African pastoralism: Past, present, future. The emergence, history and contemporary political ecology of African Pastoralism. Oxford/New York: Berghan Books.Google Scholar
  102. Shepherd, K. D., & Soule, M. J. (1998). Soil fertility management in west Kenya: Dynamic simulation of productivity, profitability and sustainability at different resource endowment levels. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 71(1–3), 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Siedenburg, J. (2006). The Machakos case study: Solid outcomes, unhelpful hyperbole. Development Policy Review, 24(1), 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Smucker, T. A., & Wisner, B. (2008). Changing household responses to drought in Tharaka, Kenya. Vulnerability, persistence and challenge. Disasters, 32(2), 190–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Soja, E. W. (1969). Rural-urban interaction. Canadian Journal of African Studies/Revue Canadienne des ÉtudesAfricaines, 3(1), 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stark, O., & Bloom, D. E. (1985). The new economics of labour migration. American Economic Review, 75(2), 173–178.Google Scholar
  107. Steinbrink, M. (2009). Leben zwischen Stadt und Land. Migration, Translokalität und Verwundbarkeit in Südafrika. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  108. Tacoli, C. (2009). Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility. Environment and Urbanization, 21, 513–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tiffen, M., & Mortimore, M. (1994). Malthus controverted: The role of capital and technology in growth and environment recovery in Kenya. World Development, 22(7), 997–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Tiffen, M., Mortimore, M., & Gichuki, F. (1994). More people, less erosion: Environmental recovery in Kenya. Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  111. Todaro, M. P. (1969). A model of labour migration and urban unemployment in less developed countries. American Economic Reviews, 59(1), 138–148.Google Scholar
  112. Tostensen, A. (1991). Between shamba and factory: Industrial labour migration in Kenya. In P. Coughlin & G. Ikiara (Eds.), Kenya’s industrialization dilemma (pp. 291–308). Nairobi: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  113. van Ginneken, J. K., Odhiambo, O., & Muller, A. S. (1986). Mobility pattern in a rural area of Machakos District, Kenya in 1974–1980. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 77(2), 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Warner, K., Hamza, M., Oliver-Smith, A., Renaud, F., & Julca, A. (2009). Climate change, environmental degradation and migration. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 689–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zaal, F., & Oostendrop, R. H. (2002). Explaining a miracle: Intensification and the transition towards sustainable small-scale agriculture in dryland Machakos and Kitui districts, Kenya. World Development, 30(7), 1271–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zimmerer, K. S. (1993). Soil Erosion and labor shortages in the Andes with special reference to Bolivia, 1953–9 1: Implications for “conservation-with-development”. World Development, 21(10), 1659–1675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cultural and Social AnthropologyUniversity of CologneKölnGermany
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations