Population and Environment

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 524–553 | Cite as

Rural–urban migration, agrarian change, and the environment in Kenya: a critical review of the literature

  • Clemens Greiner
  • Patrick Sakdapolrak


The nexus between migration dynamics and environmental change has drawn the attention of many researchers in the recent past. While the majority of studies focus on the impact of the environment on migration decisions, less emphasis has been placed on the feedback effect of migration on the environment in rural sending areas. This article provides a critical review of this relationship by focusing on the rich literature on rural–urban migration of smallholder households in Kenya and its effects on rural environments. The article argues that there are distinct relations between migration, agricultural change and the environment. These are mediated in varying degrees by flows of remittances, loss of labor, socioeconomic stratification, gender dynamics, and cultural factors. Overly generalizing assumptions about these relations, however, fail to grasp their complexity. We propose employing a translocal perspective to enrich future analysis and enhance the understanding of migration–environmental interactions.


Migration Remittances Land-use Translocality Demographic and cultural change East Africa 



We thank Lori Hunter as well as six anonymous reviewers for their detailed comments on the manuscript. We are also indebted to Markus Keck for a critical review of our concept of translocality.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cultural and Social AnthropologyUniversity of CologneKölnGermany
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity BonnBonnGermany

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