Population and Environment

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 338–369 | Cite as

Migration and mobility on the Amazon frontier

  • Jill L. Caviglia-Harris
  • Erin O. Sills
  • Katrina Mullan
Original Paper

Abstract

Migration patterns within tropical forest frontiers are highly complex and multidirectional, with movements to, from, and within these regions likely driven by different macro and micro factors. As such, several different conceptual models have been suggested to explain these dynamics. This paper uses data from a panel survey of households in a frontier region of the western Brazilian Amazon along with “second hand” reports on where people have moved to evaluate these conceptual models. Our rich data set, collected over nearly a decade from hundreds of households, allows us to compare households who arrived at different ages to assess predictions of the life cycle hypothesis; those who have been in the state (or on their properties) for different numbers of years to investigate the turnover hypothesis; those who arrived with different levels of capital to examine path dependence as suggested by conceptual models that focus on wealth dynamics; and the destination and purpose for moves from and within the study region to look for evidence of the frontier expansion hypothesis. We do not find any evidence for the turnover hypothesis, perhaps due to the favorable biophysical and market conditions in our study region. However, patterns in this region are consistent with all of the other conceptual models, reflecting the overlapping theoretical foundations of the models, and the complexity of migration and mobility on the frontier.

Keywords

Migration Population mobility Brazilian Amazon Panel data Rural households 

References

  1. Agesa, R. U. (2000). The incentive for rural to urban migration: A re-examination of the Harris-Todaro model. Applied Economics Letters, 7, 107–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves, D. S. (2002). An analysis of geographic patterns of deforestation in the Brazilin Amazon in the period 1991–1996. In C. H. Wood & R. Porro (Eds.), Deforestation and land use in the Amazon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  3. Amacher, G. S., Koskela, E., & Ollikainen, M. (2009). Deforestation and land use under insecure property rights. Environment and Development Economics, 14, 281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbier, E. B. (2004). Explaining agricultural land expansion and deforestation in developing countries. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86, 1347–1353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbier, E. (2005). Natural resources and economic development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barbieri, A. F., Bilsborrow, R. E., & Pan, W. K. (2006). Farm household lifecycles and land use in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Population and Environment, 27, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbieri, A. F., & Carr, D. L. (2005). Gender-specific out-migration, deforestation and urbanization in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Global and Planetary Change, 47, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbieri, A. F., Carr, D. L., & Bilsborrow, R. E. (2009). Migration within the frontier: The second generation colonization in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Population Research and Policy Review, 28, 291–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boserup, E. (1965). Population and technological change: A study of long-term trends. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brondizio, E. S., McCracken, S. D., Moran, E. F., Siqueiria, A. D., Nelson, D. R., & Rodriguez-Pedraza, C. (2002). The colonist footprint: Towards a conceptual framework of land use and deforestation trajectories among small farmer in Frontier Amazonia. In C. H. Wood & R. Porro (Eds.), Deforestation and land use in the Amazon. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  11. Browder, J. (2002). Conservation and development projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from the community initiative program in Rondônia. Environmental Management, 29, 750–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Browder, J. O., Pedlowski, M. A., Walker, R., Wynne, R. H., Summers, P. M., Abad, A., et al. (2008). Revisiting theories of frontier expansion in the Brazilian Amazon: A survey of the colonist farming population in Rondônia’s Post-Frontier, 1992–2002. World Development, 36, 1469–1492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldas, M. M., Simmons, C., Walker, R., Perz, S., Aldrich, S., Pereira, R., et al. (2010). Settlement formation and land cover and land use change: A case study in the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Latin American Geography, 9, 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campari, J. S. (2005). Economics of deforestation in the Amazon: Dispelling the myths. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, D. (2004). Proximate population factors and deforestation in tropical agricultural frontiers. Population and Environment, 25, 585–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, D. (2009). Population and deforestation: Why rural migration matters. Progress in Human Geography, 33, 355–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr, D. L., Suter, L., & Barbieri, A. (2006). Population dynamics and tropical deforestation: State of the debate and conceptual challenges. Population and Environment, 27, 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caviglia, J. L. (1999). Sustainable agriculture in Brazil: Economic development and deforestation. New horizons in environmental economics. UK: Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  19. Caviglia, J. L., & Kahn, J. R. (2001). Diffusion of sustainable agriculture in the Brazilian tropical rain forest: A discrete choice analysis. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49, 311–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caviglia-Harris, J. L. (2003). Sustainable agricultural practices in Rondonia, Brazil: Do local farmer organizations affect adoption rates? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52, 23–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caviglia-Harris, J. (2004). Household production and forest clearing: The role of farming in the development of the Amazon. Environment and Development Economics, 9, 181–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caviglia-Harris, J. (2005). Cattle accumulation and land use intensification by households in the Brazilian Amazon. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 34, 145–162.Google Scholar
  23. Caviglia-Harris, J., & Harris, D. (2011). The impact of settlement design on tropical deforestation rates and resulting land cover patterns. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 40(3), 451–470.Google Scholar
  24. Caviglia-Harris, J., Sills, E. O., Jones, L., Saha, S., Harris, D., McArdle, S., et al. (2009). Modeling land use and land cover change in an Amazonian frontier settlement: Strategies for addressing population change and panel attrition. Land Use Science, 4, 275–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coronel, G., Corradi, V., Garcia, V. J., Grimm, A. M., Karoly, D., Marengo, J. A., et al. (2006). Trends in total and extreme South American rainfall in 1960–2000 and links with sea surface temperature. Journal of Climate, 19, 1490–1512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davis, J., & Lopez-Carr, D. (2010). The effects of migrant remittances on population–environment dynamics in migrant origin areas: international migration, fertility, and consumption in highland Guatemala. Population and Environment, 32, 216–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Almeida, A., Ozorio, L., & Campari, J. S. (1995). Sustainable settlement in the Brazilian Amazon. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  28. Ebanyat, P., de Ridder, N., de Jager, A., Delve, R., Bekunda, M., & Giller, K. (2010). Drivers of land use change and household determinants of sustainability in smallholder farming systems of Eastern Uganda. Population and Environment, 31, 474–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Entwisle, B., Verdery, A. M., Rindfuss, R. R. & Faust, K. (2009). Social networks and migration: A view from the origin presented at the population association of America, April 13, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  30. Fearnside, P. M. (2008). Will urbanization cause deforested areas to be abandoned in Brazilian Amazonia? Environmental Conservation, 35, 197–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goetz, R. U. (1997). Diversification in agricultural production: A dynamic model of optimal cropping to manage soil erosion. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79, 341–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hecht, S., & Cockburn, A. (1990). The fate of the forest: Developers, destroyers and defenders of the Amazon. Harpercollins, September.Google Scholar
  33. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). (2010). Projeção da População do Brasil por sexo e Idade para o Período 1980–2050 and Tabela 1286–População nos Censos Demográficos.Google Scholar
  34. Lall, S. V., Selod, H., & Shalizi, Z. (2006). Rural-urban migration in developing countries: A survey of theoretical predictions and empirical findings (pp. 1–63). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  35. Lele, U., Viana, V. M., Verissimo, A., Vosti, S., Perkins, K., & Arif Husain S. (2000). Brazil: Forests in the balance: Challenges of conservation with development. World Bank Publications, July.Google Scholar
  36. Ludewigs, T., D’Antona, A. D., Brondizio, E. S., & Hetrick, S. (2009). Agrarian structure and land-cover change along the lifespan of three colonization areas in the Brazilian Amazon. World Development, 37, 1348–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Malthus, T. R. (1798). An essay on the principle of population: As it affects the future improvement of society: With remarks on the speculation of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers. London: J. Johnson.Google Scholar
  38. McCracken, S. D., Brondizio, E. S., Nelson, D., Moran, E. F., Siqueira, A. D., & Rodriguez-Pedraza, C. (1999). Remote sensing and GIS at farm property level: Demography and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 65, 1311–1320.Google Scholar
  39. McCracken, S., Siqueira, A. D., Moran, E. F., & Brondizio, E. S. (2002). Land-use patterns on an agricultural frontier in Brazil: Insights and examples from a demographic perspective. In C. H. Wood & R. Porro (Eds.), Deforestation and land use in the Amazon (pp. 162–192). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  40. Millikan, B. H. (1992). Tropical deforestation, land degradation, and society: Lessons from Rondonia, Brazil. Latin American Perspectives, 19, 45–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moran, E. F. (1981). Developing the Amazon. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Moran, E. F., Brondizio, E. S., & McCracken, S. (2002). Trajectories of land use: Soils, succession, and crop choice. In C. H. Wood & R. Porro (Eds.), Deforestation and land use in the Amazon (pp. 193–217). Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  43. Myers, N. (2009). The present status and future prospects of tropical moist forests. Environmental Conservation, 7, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pedlowski, M. A. (1997). An emerging partnership in regional economic development: Non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Local state and the world bank. A case study of Planafloro, Rondônia, Brazil. Virginia Tech.Google Scholar
  45. Pedlowski, M., & Dale, V. (1992). Land-use practices in Ouro Preto do Oeste. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.Google Scholar
  46. Pedlowski, M. A., Dale, V. H., Matricardi, E. A. T., & da Silva Filho, E. P. (1997). Patterns and impacts of deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil. Landscape and Urban Planning, 38, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Perz, S. G. (2001). Household demographic factors as life cycle determinants of land use in the Amazon. Population Research and Policy Review, 20, 159–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Perz, S. G., Caldas, M., Walker, R., Arima, E., & Souza, C. (2008). Road networks and forest fragmentation in the Amazon: Explanations for local differences with implications for conservation and development. Journal of Latin American Geography, 7, 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Perz, S. G., & Walker, R. T. (2002). Household life cycles and secondary forest cover among small farm colonists in the Amazon. World Development, 30, 1009–1027.Google Scholar
  50. Pichon, F. (1997a). Poverty and prosperity among migrant settlers in the Amazon rainforest frontier of Ecuador. December 1.Google Scholar
  51. Pichon, F. J. (1997b). Colonist land-allocation decisions, land use, and deforestation in the ecuadorian Amazon Frontier. Text.Google Scholar
  52. Ravenstein, E. G. (1889). The laws of migration. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52, 241–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rodriguez-Meza, J., Southgate, D., & Gonzalez-Vega, C. (2004). Rural poverty, household responses to shocks, and agricultural land use: panel results for El Salvador. Environment and Development Economics, 9, 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rosero-Bixby, L., & Palloni, A. (1998). Population and deforestation in Costa Rica. Population and Environment, 20, 149–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rudel, T. K. (2005). Tropical forests: Regional paths of destruction and regeneration in the late twentieth century. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Rudel, T. K., Bates, D., & Machinguiashi, R. (2002). A tropical forest transition? Agricultural change, out-migration, and secondary forests in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 92, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shively, G., & Pagiola, S. (2004). Agricultural intensification, local labor markets, and deforestation in the Philippines. Environment and Development Economics, 9, 241–266.Google Scholar
  58. Shrestha, S., & Bhandari, P. (2007). Environmental security and labor migration in Nepal. Population and Environment, 29, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sills, E. O., & Caviglia-Harris, J. L. (2009). Evolution of the Amazonian frontier: Land values in Rondônia, Brazil. Land Use Policy, 26, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Southgate, D. (1990). The causes of land degradation along“Spontaneously” expanding agricultural frontiers in the third world. Land Economics, 66, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Southgate, D. (1991). The causes of land degradation along “spontaneously” expanding agricultural frontiers in the third world: Reply. Land Economics, 67, 267–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Southgate, D. (1992). Policies contributing to agriculture colonization of Latin America’s tropical forests. In N. P. Sharma (Ed.), Managing the world’s forests. Iowa: Kendal/Hunt Publishing.Google Scholar
  63. Southgate, D. (1994). Tropical deforestation and agricultural development in Latin America. In K. Brown & D. W. Pearce (Eds.), The causes of tropical deforestation: The economic and statistical analysis of factors giving rise to the loss of the tropical forest. London: University College London Press.Google Scholar
  64. VanWey, L., D’Antona, Á., & Brondízio, E. (2007). Household demographic change and land use/land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon. Population and Environment, 28, 163–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walker, R. (2003). Mapping process to pattern in the landscape change of the amazonian frontier. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 93, 376–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walker, R. (2004). Theorizing land-cover and land-use change: The case of tropical deforestation. International Regional Science Review, 27, 247–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walker, R., Perz, S., Caldas, M., & Teixeira Silva, L. G. (2002). Land use and land cover change in forest frontiers: The role of household life cycles. International Regional Science Review, 25, 169.Google Scholar
  68. Walsh, S. J., Bilsborrow, R. E., McGregor, S. J., Frizelle, B. G., Messina, J. P., Pan, W. K. T., Crews-Meyer, K. A., Taff, G. M., & Baquero, F. (2003). Integration of longitudinal surveys, remote sensing time series, and spatial analyses: Approaches for linking people and place. In People and the environment: approaches for linking household and community surveys to remote sensing and GIS. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  69. Yesuf, M., & Bluffstone, R. A. (2009). Poverty, risk aversion, and path dependence in low-income countries: Experimental evidence from Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 91, 1022–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jill L. Caviglia-Harris
    • 1
  • Erin O. Sills
    • 2
  • Katrina Mullan
    • 3
  1. 1.Economics and Finance DepartmentSalisbury UniversitySalisburyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forestry and Environmental ResourcesNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural and Resource EconomicsUniversity of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations