Skip to main content

Population and pavement: population growth and land development in Israel

Abstract

This research examines land use change in Israel––an intriguing but understudied setting with regard to population–environment dynamics. While Israel is fairly unique with regard to its combined high levels of economic prosperity and high population growth, this case study has relevance for developed countries and regions (like the south and southwest regions of the USA) which must balance population growth and urban development with open space conservation for ecosystem services and biological diversity. The population–land development relationship is investigated during the period from 1961 to 1995 at three spatial scales: national, regional (six districts), and local (40 localities). There is a positive correlation between population growth and land development rates at the national scale, and while remaining positive, the strength of the relationship varies greatly at regional and local scales. The variation in population–land use dynamics across scales is used to garner insight as to the importance of geography, policy and historical settlement patterns.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Notes

  1. 1.

    Using GNI Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) as an economic indicator, Israel resembles Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Slovenia, all of which had a 2002 GNI PPP between $17,000 and $21,000. However, all of the latter countries have an annual rate of population increase of less than 0.1% whereas Israel’s rate of annual increase was 1.6%. Countries that bore resemblance to Israel with regard to both rate of population increase and GNI PPP were Kuwait and Bahrain (Population Reference Bureau 2004).

  2. 2.

    From the perspective of open-space preservation, it is important to note that much of the Negev Desert, while relatively unpopulated, is used extensively for military training zones. In addition, it is used for mining of minerals and is the site for repositories of solid, chemica,l and radioactive waste.

  3. 3.

    The academic literature on planning is Israel most often refers to strongly centralized control of land use in Israel. However, there are situations and research that challenge this assumption. Prior to National Outline Plan 31 in the early 1990s, planning in Israel was sectoral rather than comprehensive (Frenkel 2004), allowing for market and/or political pressures to catalyze development in circumvention of centralized planning processes. One such example is mountaintop residential development in the Galilee in the 1980s (Carmon 1990). Another is illegal or unplanned development in multiple sectors (commercial centers, residences, storage facilities) as documented by environmental organizations and by the State Comptroller’s office; development that is often approved ex-post facto by decision-making bodies. Alfasi (2006) suggests that the combination of mandated flexibility measures for planning at the local level coupled with illegal circumvention of statutory planning guidelines produces results that do not reflect official planning goals.

  4. 4.

    Locality boundary data are updated up to 2002. Locality boundaries have been modified in the past, including the creation of new local authorities and the transfer of undeveloped land between local authorities. In 1961, there were 179 local councils nationwide, compared to 194 in 1972, 222 in 1983, and 251 in 1995. There was also a sharp increase in the number of communities, rising from 873 in 1961 to 1,178 in 1995 (MoI 2000). Recently, the trend in establishing new local councils may be reversed as pressure grows from the national government to merge municipal councils into larger administrative units (MoI 2003).

  5. 5.

    We note that the maps updates did not always correspond to census years from which we take our population data. In order to address this discrepancy, we used all of the maps published prior to a given census year to quantify developed area prior to that year, thus synchronizing the time periods for the population and spatial data as best as possible.

  6. 6.

    We used local population data to develop several additional variables: population at t 0, population density at t 0 (population divided by the total area built in the locality), and population growth during the interim period. Owing to strong covariance among these variables, only population growth was used in our statistical analysis.

  7. 7.

    Based on a regression model that included percentage of open space in each locality at t 0 as an additional variable, we determined that development rates in most cases did not show any change based on the proportion of available land, even in localities where there was only a small percentage of land still available for development. Our assumption that the rate of development within a locality could be characterized as a logistic curve (as land became more locally scarce and a higher premium was placed on remaining open space, development would slow) was not supported by the data. Population density at t 0 and population size at t 0 were excluded from the model because they showed high covariance with population growth.

  8. 8.

    The data from Mazor (1993), while being the only data that provide estimates of built space prior to the 1990s, were received by the public and other professionals with some degree of controversy regarding its accuracy, specifically as to whether it overestimated the amount of land that had been developed in the past.

References

  1. Alfasi, N. (2006). Planning policy? Between long-term planning and zoning amendments in the Israeli planning system. Environment and Planning A, 38, 553–568.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alterman, R. (1997). The challenge of farmland preservation: Lessons from a six-nation comparison. Journal of the American Planning Association, 63(2), 220–243.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Alterman, R. (2001). National-level planning in Israel: Walking the tightrope between government control and privatisation. In R. Alterman (Ed.), National-level planning in democratic countries: An international comparison of city and regional policy-making. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Alterman, R. (2002). Planning in the face of crisis: Land use, housing, and mass immigration in Israel. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Applebaum, L., Newman, D., & Margulies, J. (1989). Institutions and settlers as reluctant partners: Changing power relations and the development of new settlement patterns in Israel. Journal of Rural Studies, 5(1), 99–109.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Assif, S., & Shachar. A. (2005). In The National Council for Planning and Building (Ed.), TAMA 35––Ikarei H’Tokhnit (NOP 35––plan highlights) (pp. 10). Israel Ministry of Interior––Planning Authority.

  7. Axinn, W. G., & Barber, J. S. (2003). Linking people and land use: A sociological perspective. In J. Fox, R. R. Rindfuss, S. J. Walsh, & V. Mishra (Eds.), People and the environment: Approaches for linking household and community surveys to remote sensing and GIS (pp. 285–313). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Azoulai, Y. (2005). Simchon: Haavarat Mitnachalim LCholot Nitzanim Tipagah B’sviva (Simchon: Moving the settlers to the Nitzanim Dunes will harm the environment). http://www.haaretz.co.il.

  9. Ben-Gurion, D. (1938). The peel report and the Jewish state. London, England: Palestine Labour Studies Group.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bilsborrow, R. E., & DeLargy, P. F. (1990). Land use, migration, and natural resource deterioration: The experience of Guatemala and the Sudan. Population and Development Review, 16(Supplement: Resources, environment and population: Present knowledge, future options), 125–147.

  11. Bongaarts, J. (1992). Population growth and global warming. Population and Development Review, 18(2), 299–319.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Boserup, E. (2005). The conditions of agricultural growth. Edison, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Carmon, N. (1990). Hityashvoot HaKhadasha B’Galil––Mekhkar Ha’arakha (The new settlement in the Galil––a research assessment). Haifa: The National Planning Board.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Central Bureau of Statistics of Israel. (1997). Local authorities in Israel 1995 physical data. Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of the Interior.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Central Bureau of Statistics of Israel. (2009). Statistical abstract of Israel. Jerusalem.

  16. Condorcet, M.d. (1976). The future progress of the human mind. In P. Appleman (Ed.), An essay on the principle of population (pp. 7–9). New York: W.W. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Cramer, J. C. (1998). Population growth and air quality in California. Demography, 35(1), 45–56.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Dan, J., Yaalon, D. H., Koyumdjisky, H., & Raz, Z. (1976). The soils of Israel. Bet Dagan, Israel: The Volcani Center, Israel Ministry of Agriculture.

    Google Scholar 

  19. De Souza, R. M., Williams, J. S., & Meyerson, F. A. B. (2003). Critical links: Population, health, and the environment. Population Bulletin, 58(3), 3–42.

    Google Scholar 

  20. DeHart, J. L., & Soule, P. T. (2000). Does I = PAT work in local places? Professional Geographer, 52(1), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  21. DellaPergola, S., & Cohen, L. (1992). World Jewish population: Trends and policies. In Conference on world Jewish population. Jerusalem: The Institute of Contemporary Jewry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

  22. Dietz, T., & Rosa, E. A. (1997). Effects of population and affluence on CO2 emissions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 94, 175–179.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Dolev, A., & Perevolotsky, A. (2004). The red book: Vertebrates in Israel. Jerusalem: The Israel Nature and Parks Authority and The Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Ehrlich, P. R. (1970). The population bomb. New York: Ballantine Books, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Entwisle, B., & Stern, P. C. (2005). Population, land use, and environment. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Ettinger, Y. (2003). Lapid lambastes `barbaric’ settlers. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=373706.

  27. European Environment Agency. (2006). Urban sprawl in Europe: The ignored challenge (pp. 60). Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.

  28. Evans, M. (2006). Defending territorial sovereignty through civilian settlement: The case of Israel’s population dispersal policy. Israel Affairs, 12(3), 578–596.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Falah, G. (1991). Israeli “judaization” policy in Galilee. Journal of Palestine Studies, 20(4), 69–85.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Feitelson, E. (1999). Social norms, rationales and policies: Reframing farmland protection in Israel. Journal of Rural Studies, 15, 431–446.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Foresman, T. W., Pickett, S. T. A., & Zipperer, W. C. (1997). Methods for spatial and temporal land use and land cover assessment for urban ecosystems and application in the greater Baltimore-Chesapeake region. Urban Ecosystems, 1, 201–216.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Fox, J., & Vogler, J. B. (2005). Land-use and land-cover change in Montane Mainland southeast Asia. Environmental Management, 36(3), 394–403.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Frankenberg, E. (1999). Will the biogeorgraphical bridge continue to exist? Israel Journal of Zoology, 45, 65–74.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Frenkel, A. Spatial population distribution: From Dispersed to Concentrated (in Hebrew). Unpublished manuscript.

  35. Frenkel, A. (2004). A land-consumption model: Its application to Israel’s future spatial development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70(4), 454–470.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Frenkel, A., & Ashkenazi, M. (2008). Measuring urban sprawl: How can we deal with it? Environment and Planning B, 35(1), 56–79.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Friedlander, D., & Goldscheider, C. (1979). The population of Israel. New York: Columbia University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2002). Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation. BioScience, 52(2), 143–150.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2004). Dynamic causal patterns of desertification. BioScience, 54(9), 817–829.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Giannecchini, M., Twine, W., & Vogel, C. (2007). Land-cover change and human-environment interactions in a rural cultural landscape in South Africa. The Geographical Journal, 173(1), 26–42.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Gillham, O. (2002). The limitless city. Washington D.C.: Island Press.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Giuliano, G. (1995). Land use impacts of transportation investments: Highway and transit. In S. Hansen (Ed.), The geography of urban transportation (pp. 305–341). New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Goldscheider, C. (1996). Israel’s changing society: Population, ethnicity and development. Colorado: Boulder.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Gonen, A. (2000). Seker Ha’Shtakhim Ha’Petukhim (Survey of open spaces). Jerusalem: Ha’Moatzah Ha’Artzit L’Tichnun U’Lebniya (The National Council for Planning and Construction).

  45. Hardin, G. (1993). Living within limits: Ecology, economics, and population taboos. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Harrison, P., & Pearce, F. (2000). AAAS atlas of population and environment. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Heilig, G. K. (1994). Neglected dimensions of global land-use change: Reflections and data. Population and Development Review, 20(4), 831–859.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Hunter, L. M., Gonzalez, M. D. J., Stevenson, G. M., Karish, K. S., Toth, R., Edwards, T. C., et al. (2003). Population and land use change in the California Mojave: Natural habitat implications of alternative futures. Population Research and Policy Review, 22(4), 373–397.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Irwin, E. G., & Bockstael, N. E. (2008). The evolution of urban sprawl: Evidence of spatial heterogeneity and increasing land fragmentation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 20672–20677.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kanev, I. (1957). Population and society in Israel and in the world (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: The Bialik Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Kaplan, M. (1999). Open spaces: Present problems and future goals. In Towards sustainable development (pp. 123–137). Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of Environment.

  52. Kedar, B. Z. (1999). The changing land: Between the Jordan and the Sea, aerial photographs from 1917 to the present. Israel: Yad Ben-Zvi Press.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Kellerman, A. (1993). Society and settlement: Jewish land of Israel in the twentieth century. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Khamaisi, R. (1993). M’Tichnun Magbil L’Tichnun Mephateach B’Yishuvim Ha’Aravim B’Israel (From restrictive to developmental planning in arab localities in Israel). Jerusalem: The Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Khamaisi, R. (2004). Environmental spatial policies and control of Arab localities’ development. Presented at Palestinian and Israeli environmental narratives, York University, Toronto.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Koomen, E., Dekkers, J., & van Dijk, T. (2008). Open-space preservation in the Netherlands: Planning, practice and prospects. Land Use Policy, 25, 361–377.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Lambin, E. F., & Geist, H. J. (2002). Global land-use and land-cover change: What have we learned so far? IGBP Newsletter, 27–30.

  58. Lambin, E. F., Geist, H. J., & Lepers, E. (2003). Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions. Annual Review of Environmental Resources, 28, 205–241.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Lambin, E. F., Turner, B. L., Geist, H. J., Agbola, S. B., Angelsen, A., Bruce, J. W., et al. (2001). The causes of land-use and land-cover change: Moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change, 11(4), 261–269.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Levin, N., Lahav, H., Ramon, U., Heller, A., Nizry, G., Tsoar, A., et al. (2007). Landscape continuity analysis: A new approach to conservation planning in Israel. Landscape and Urban Planning, 79(1), 53–64.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Liu, J., Daily, G. C., Ehrlich, P. R., & Luck, G. P. (2003). Effects of household dynamics on resource consumption and biodiversity. Nature, 421, 530–533.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Lomborg, B. (2001). The skeptical environmentalist. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Lutz, W., Sanderson, W. C., & Wils, A. (2007). Conclusions: Toward comprehensive P-E studies. Population and Development Review, 28, 225–250.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Malthus, T. R. (1976). An essay on the principle of population. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Mazor, A. (1993). Israel 2020: Master plan for israel during the 21st century. Haifa: The Technion.

    Google Scholar 

  66. McKinney, M. L. (2002). Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. BioScience, 52(10), 883–890.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Mena, C. F., Bilsborrow, R. E., & McClain, M. E. (2006). Socioeconomic drivers of deforestation in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Environmental Management, 37(6), 802–815.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Meyer, W. B., & Turner, B. L. (1992). Human population growth and global land-use/cover change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 39–61.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Ministry of the Interior. (2000). HaReshuyot HaMekomiot B’Yisrael 1998, Netunim Phisim (Local authorities in Israel 1998, physical attributes). Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of the Interior.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Ministry of the Interior. (2003). HaMadrich HaShimooshi L’Nivchar B’Reshut HaMekomit (The practical guide for the elected official in the local authority). Jerusalem: Israel Ministry of the Interior.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Moffitt, R. (2005). Remarks on the analysis of causal relationships in population research. Demography, 42(1), 91–108.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Muller, P. O. (1995). Transportation and urban form: Stages in the spatial evolution of the American metropolis. In S. Hansen (Ed.), The geography of urban transportation (pp. 26–52). New York: The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Mundia, C. N., & Aniya, M. (2005). Analysis of land use/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remotes sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26, 2831–2849.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Mustard, J. F., Defries, R., Fisher, T., & Moran, E. (2003). Land use and land cover change pathways and impacts. In G. Gutman, C. O. Justice, E. F. Moran, J. F. Mustard, R. R. Rindfuss, D. Skole, B. L. T. II, & M. A. Cochrane (Eds.), Land change science: Observing, monitoring, and understanding trajectories of change on the earth’s surface. Netherlands: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Newman, D. (1984). Ideological and political influences on Israeli rurban colonization: The West Bank and Galilee mountains. Canadian Geographer, 28(2), 142–155.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Newman, D. (1986). Functional change and the settlement structure in Israel: A study of political control, response and adaptation. Journal of Rural Studies, 2(2), 127–137.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Newman, D. (1989). Civilian and military presence as strategies of territorial control: The Arab-Israeli conflict. Political Geography Quarterly, 8(3), 215–227.

    Google Scholar 

  78. O’Neill, B. C., & Chen, B. (2002). Demographic determinants of household energy use in the United States. Population and Development Review, 28, 53–88.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Orenstein, D. E. (2004). Population growth and environmental impact: Ideology and academic discourse in Israel. Population and Environment, 26(1), 41–60.

    Google Scholar 

  80. Orenstein, D. E., Bradley, B. A., Albert, J., Mustard, J. F., & Hamburg, S. P. (2010). How much is built? Quantifying and interpreting patterns of built space from different data sources. International Journal of Remote Sensing (in press).

  81. Orenstein, D. E., & Hamburg, S. P. (2009). To populate or preserve? Evolving political-demographic and environmental paradigms in Israeli land-use policy. Land Use Policy, 26(4), 984–1000.

    Google Scholar 

  82. Palloni, A. (1994). The relation between population and deforestation: Methods for drawing causal inferences from macro and micro studies. In L. Arizpe, M. P. Stone, & D. C. Major (Eds.), Population and environment: Rethinking the debate (pp. 125–165). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

    Google Scholar 

  83. Pan, W., Carr, D., Barbieri, A., Bilsborrow, R., & Suchindran, C. (2007). Forest clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon: A study of patterns over space and time. Population Resource and Policy Review, 26, 635–659.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Pebley, A. R. (1998). Demography and the environment. Demography, 35(4), 377–389.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Perevolotsky, A., & Seligman, N. G. (1998). Role of grazing in Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems––inversion of a paradigm. BioScience, 48(12), 1007–1017.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Population Reference Bureau. (2004). Data finder country profiles. http://www.prb.org/?Section=Data_by_Country&Template=/customsource/countryprofile/countryprofile.cfm.

  87. Portugese, J. (1998). Fertility policy in Israel: The politics of religion, gender and nation. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Pu, R., Gong, P., Michishita, R., & Sasagawa, T. (2008). Spectral mixture analysis for mapping abundance of urban surface components from the Terra/ASTER data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112, 939–954.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Ramankutty, N., Graumlich, L., Achard, F., Alves, D., Chhabra, A., DeFries, R. S., et al. (2006). Global land-cover change: Recent progress, remaining challenges. In E. F. Lambin & H. J. Geist (Eds.), Land-use and land-cover change (pp. 9–39). Berlin: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Reid, W. V., Mooney, H. A., Cropper, A., Capistrano, D., Carpenter, S. R., Chopra, K., et al. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Synthesis. In J. Sarukhan & A. Whyte (Eds.), Millennium ecosystem assessment (p. 155). Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Rindfuss, R. R., Walsh, S. J., Turner, B. L., I. I., Fox, J., & Mishra, V. (2004). Developing a science of land change: Challenges and methodological issues. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 101(39), 13976–13981.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Sagi, Y. (2000). Shtakhim Petukhim––Basees L’Shmira al D’muto shel Ha’aretz (Open space––the foundation for preserving the identity of the land). Tel Aviv: The Open Landscape Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Sapir, Y., & Shmida, A. (2006). “Mispar Adom” L’Kviat Kdimoioot L’Shimoor Shel Minai Tzmakhim B’Sakanat Hakkhada (“Red number” for assigning protected status to plant species under threat of extinction). Rotem: Israel Plants Information Center. http://rotem.huji.ac.il/red%20number_H.htm.

  94. Satterthwaite, D. (2009). The implications of population growth and urbanization for climate change. Environment and Urbanization, 21(2), 545–567.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Schiff, G. S. (1981). The politics of fertility policy in Israel. In P. Ritterband (Ed.), Modern Jewish fertility. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Schneider, L., & Pontius, R. G., Jr. (2001). Modeling land-use change in the Ipswich watershed, Massachusetts, USA. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 85, 83–94.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Shachar, A. (1998). Reshaping the map of Israel: A new national planning doctrine. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 555, 209–218.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Shoshany, M., & Goldshleger, N. (2002). Land-use and population density changes in Israel––1950 to 1990: Analysis of regional and local trends. Land-use Policy, 19, 123–133.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Simon, J. L. (1998). The ultimate resource 2. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Soffer, A., & Bystrov, E. (2005). Israel demography 2004–2020: In light of the process of disengagement. Haifa, Israel: University of Haifa.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Soffer, A., & Bystrov, E. (2007). Israel: Demography and density 2007–2020. Chaiken chair in geostrategy. Haifa: University of Haifa.

    Google Scholar 

  102. Stefanov, W. L., Ramsey, M. S., & Christensen, P. R. (2001). Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers. Remote Sensing of Environment, 77, 173–185.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Survey of Israel. (1966). Soil map. Israel: Ministry of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Tal, A. (2002). Pollution in a promised land. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Tal, A. (2008). Space matters: Historic drivers and turning points in Israel’s open space protection policy. Israel Studies, 13, 119–151.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Turner, B. L., Lambin, E. F., & Reenberg, A. (2007). The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(52), 20666–20671.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Van Rij, E., Dekkers, J., & Koomen, E. (2008). Analysing the success of open space preservation in the Netherlands: The Midden-Delfland case. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 99(1), 115–124.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Vitousek, P. M., Mooney, H. A., Lubchenco, J., & Melilo, J. M. (1997). Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science, 277(5325), 494–499.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Walsh, S. J., Crawford, T. W., Welsh, W. F., & Crews-Meyer, K. A. (2001). A multiscale analysis of LULC and NDVI variation in Nang Rong district, northeast Thailand. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 85, 47–64.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Walsh, S. J., Evans, T. P., Welsh, W. F., Entwisle, B., & Rindfuss, R. R. (1999). Scale-dependent relationships between population and environment in Northeastern Thailand. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 65(1), 97–105.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Ward, D., Phinn, S. R., & Murray, A. T. (2000). Monitoring growth in rapidly urbanizing areas using remotely sensed data. Professional Geographer, 52(3), 371–386.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Werczberger, E., & Borukhov, E. (1999). The Israel land authority: Relic or necessity? Land Use Policy, 16, 129–138.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Winckler, O. (2008). The failure of pronatalism in developed ‘with cultural-ethnic hegemony’: The Israeli lesson. Population Space and Place, 14(2):119–134.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Yiftachel, O. (1998). Democracy or ethnocracy: Territory and settler politics in Israel/Palestine. Middle East Report.

  115. Yiftachel, O. (1999). ‘Ethnocracy’: The politics of judaizing Israel/Palestine. Constellations, 6(3), 364–390.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Yiftachel, O., & Rumley, D. (1991). On the impact of Israel’s judaization policy in the Galilee. Political Geography Quarterly, 10(3), 286–296.

    Google Scholar 

  117. Yom Tov, Y., & Mendelsohn, H. (1988). Changes in the distribution and abundance of vertebrates in Israel. In Y. Yom Tov & E. Tchernov (Eds.), The zoogeography of israel: The distribution and abundance of a zoogeographical crossroad. Dordrecht: DRW Junk Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  118. Zhang, Q., Wang, J., Peng, X., Gong, P., & Shi, P. (2002). Urban built-up land change detection with road density and spectral information from multi-temporal landsat TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(15), 3057–3078.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Leah Van Wey, Jeff Albert, Brian O’Neill, Michael White, Barbara Entwistle, Lori Hunter, Bethany Bradley, Jeremy Fisher, and two anonymous reviewers for their ideas and recommendations; David Lindstrom for his assistance with the statistical analysis; and Lynn Carlson for her assistance with the GIS analysis. Spatial data were generously provided by the GIS unit of Keren Kayameth L’Israel (central division), and by the cartography library of Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Funding was provided through a Luce Environmental Graduate Student Fellowship to Daniel Orenstein.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel E. Orenstein.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Orenstein, D.E., Hamburg, S.P. Population and pavement: population growth and land development in Israel. Popul Environ 31, 223–254 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-010-0102-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Land use/land cover change
  • Urbanization
  • Open space preservation
  • Population growth
  • Land use policy
  • Israel