Political Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 423–430 | Cite as

The Enduring Effects of Social Pressure: Tracking Campaign Experiments Over a Series of Elections

  • Tiffany C. Davenport
  • Alan S. Gerber
  • Donald P. GreenEmail author
  • Christopher W. Larimer
  • Christopher B. Mann
  • Costas Panagopoulos
Original Paper


Recent field experiments have demonstrated the powerful effect of social pressure messages on voter turnout. This research note considers the question of whether these interventions’ effects persist over a series of subsequent elections. Tracking more than one million voters from six experimental studies, we find strong and statistically significant enduring effects one and sometimes two years after the initial communication.


Voter turnout Social norms Habit formation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiffany C. Davenport
    • 1
  • Alan S. Gerber
    • 1
  • Donald P. Green
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher W. Larimer
    • 2
  • Christopher B. Mann
    • 3
  • Costas Panagopoulos
    • 4
  1. 1.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.University of Northern IowaCeder FallsUSA
  3. 3.University of MiamiMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Fordham UniversityBronxUSA

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