Appendix: Variable Descriptions
All individual level data are taken from the 2004 Current Population Survey, Voter Supplement File. All variables with missing data are listwise deleted from the analysis.
Voted. (PES1) Valid universe: citizens age 18 and older. 0 = reported did not vote/did not know/refused, 1 = reported voted.
Education. (PEEDUCA) 0 = persons with less than a high school diploma, 1 = persons with a high school diploma, 2 = persons with some college or an undergraduate degree, 3 = persons with at least some post-graduate education.
Household Income. (HUFAMINC) 0 = household income < $20,000, 1 = household income < $40,000, 2 = household income < $100,000, 3 = household income > $99,999.
Age. (PRTAGE) Respondent’s age top coded at 90.
Sex. (PESEX) 0 = woman, 1 = man.
Non-Hispanic White. Combination of race (PTDTRACE) and Hispanic origin (PEHISPNON). Coded 1 = Non-Hispanic White (PTDTRACE = 1 and PEHISPNON = 1), 0 = All others.
Married. (PEMARITL) 0 = not married (widowed, divorced, separated, and never married), 1 = married (married—spouse present and married—spouse absent).
Owner. (HETENURE) 0 = renter (rented for cash or occupied without payment of cash rent), 1 = owner (Owned or being bought by household member).
Mover. (PES8) 0 = resided at current address for more than 4 years, 1 = resided at current address for 4 or less years.
Presidential Margin of Victory. Statewide margin of victory calculated as a percentage of total vote among all presidential candidates. Data obtained from state election administration offices.
EDR. States with Election Day Registration in 2004 are Idaho, Maine, Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Dakota (no registration), Rhode Island (presidential electors only), Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Data compiled by author and obtained through examination of state election codes.
Statewide Registration Portability. States that permit current registrants to register and change address on Election Day at their new polling place: Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Maryland, Ohio, and West Virginia. South Dakota and Washington, which permit statewide registration portability by absentee balloting or a previous polling place are excluded in this definition. Data compiled by author and obtained through examination of state election codes.