Optical camera communication (OCC) can be considered a convenient and versatile short-range communication technology within the framework of optical wireless communications. As OCC suffers from low data transmission rate in comparison with very high-speed modulation of light emitting diodes (LEDs), it imposes major limitations on an optical camera-based vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. This paper presents an OCC-based high-speed V2V using a distinct capturing strategy called selective capture (SC). Experiments were performed to verify the proposed SC-based V2V based on a Raspberry Pi camera module (RaspiCam). The SC was performed with template matching technique on the RaspiCam module. The module enables both the selection of resolution and the capturing of vehicle taillights only from the full camera capture frame. As the transmitter, a \(4\times 4\) red LED array was employed as the taillights of a vehicle. It is found that the use of SC to capture the taillights effectively increases the capture speed of RaspiCam from 120 frames per second (fps) to 435 fps, yielding an efficient and high-speed V2V with flicker-free taillights. In addition, the proposed SC-V2V with increased capture speed provides a data rate of up to 3.456 kbps and achieves acceptable bit error rate performance at a distance of up to 175 cm.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Nguyen, T., Islam, A., Hossan, T., Jang, Y.M.: Current status and performance analysis of optical camera communication technologies for 5G networks. IEEE Access 5, 4574–4594 (2017)
Teli, S., Cahyadi, W.A., Chung, Y.H.: Optical camera communication: motion over camera. IEEE Commun. Mag. 55(8), 156–162 (2017)
Jang, Y.M.: IEEE 802.15 WPAN 15.7 Amendment—Optical Camera Communications Study Group (SG 7a), http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/SG7a.html (2017). Accessed 22 Sept 2017
Luo, P., et al.: Experimental demonstration of RGB LED-based optical camera communications. IEEE Photonics J. 7(5), 1–12 (2015)
Huang, W., Tian, P., Xu, Z.: Design and implementation of a realtime CIM-MIMO optical camera communication system. Opt. Express 24, 24567–24579 (2016)
Revision to IEEE Standard 802.15.7-2011: P802.15.7: Short-Range Wireless Optical Communication. IEEE Standard 802.15.7. 05 Nov 2014
Li, D., Huang, W., Xu, Z.: Flicker free indoor visible light positioning system assisted by a filter and mobile phone camera. In: IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC), Chengdu, pp. 1–5 (2016)
Wook, H.B.C., Haruyama, S., Nakagawa, M.: Visible light communication with LED traffic lights using 2-dimensional image sensor. IEICE Trans. Fundam. E89–A(3), 654–659 (2006)
Yamazato, T., Takai, I., Okada, H., Fujii, T., Yendo, T., Arai, S., Andoh, M., Harada, T., Yasutomi, K., Kagawa, K., Kawahito, S.: Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(7), 88–97 (2014)
Takai, I., Harada, T., Andoh, M., Yasutomi, K., Kagawa, K., Kawahito, S.: Optical vehicle-to-vehicle communication system using LED transmitter and camera receiver. IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 1–14 (2014)
Tsai, H.M., Lin, H.M., Lee, H.Y.: Demo: rollinglight-universal camera communications for single LED. In: Proceedings of 20th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 317–320 (2014)
Danakis, C., Afgani, M., Povey, G., Underwood, L., Haas, H.: Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication. In: IEEE Globecom Workshops, pp. 1244–1248 (2012)
Ji, P., Tsai, H.M., Wang, C., Liu, F.: Vehicular visible light communications with LED taillight and rolling shutter camera. In: Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 1–6 (2014)
Jennie, S., Huibao, L., Glen, A.: Detecting regions of interest in images. SPIE Newsroom. 31 Nov 2006
Roberts, R.D.: Automotive comphotogrammetry. In: IEEE 79th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Seoul, pp. 1–5 (2014)
Luo, P., Zhang, M., Ghassemlooy, Z., Minh, H.L., Tang, X., Tsai, H.M.: Undersampled phase shift ON–OFF keying for camera communication. In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference of Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, pp. 1–6 (2014)
Cahyadi, W.A., Kim, Y.H., Chung, Y.H.: Mobile phone camera-based indoor visible light communications with rotation compensation. IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–8 (2016)
Iwasaki, S., Wada, M., Endo, T., Fujii, T., Tanimoto, M.: Basic experiments on paralle wireless optical communication for ITS. In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Istanbul, pp. 321–326 (2007)
Xiu, C., Wang, R.: Hybrid tracking based on camshift and template matching. In: 29th Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC), Chongqing, pp. 5753–5756 (2017)
This research was supported by the Research Grant of Brain Busan (BB) 21 Project of 2017.
About this article
Cite this article
Teli, S., Cahyadi, W.A. & Chung, Y.H. High-speed optical camera V2V communications using selective capture. Photon Netw Commun 36, 210–216 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11107-018-0770-z
- Optical camera communication (OCC)
- Selective capture (SC)
- Light emitting diode (LED)
- Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication