Advances in optical technologies, modulation formats, and symbol transmission rates became paramount for today’s agile high spectral efficiency optical networks. Nonetheless, laser phase noise (PN) has played a major impact on the performance of these systems due to the employment of moderate-quality lasers that significantly affect the implementation of high-order modulation schemes starting from existing QPSK and growing to MQAM, \(M=16\), 32, and 64. In this paper, we report an optical dual-polarization (DP) transmitter prototype that digitally emulates the effect of the laser phase noise, according to Wiener process, applied to a different types narrow-linewidth laser sources. This enables the generation of an arbitrary laser linewidth ranging from kilohertz up to tens of megahertz. Our experimental study evaluates the effect of PN on the performance of tracking algorithms commonly implemented on practical coherent receivers. The experimental results show that, for laser linewidth \(\le \)1 MHz, practical filter recovery algorithm succeeds to make appropriate tracking for both DP-QPSK and 16 QAM at 16- and 32-Gbaud system rates. However, for 10 MHz linewidth, correct recovery is possible only for DP-QPSK.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Savory, S.J.: Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1164–1179 (2010)
Winzer, P.: Beyond 100G Ethernet. IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(7), 26–30 (2010)
Ragheb, A., et al.: Up to 64 QAM/32 Gbaud flexible dual polarization transmitter for future elastic optical networks. Opt. Eng. 52(11), 115102 (2013)
Gnauck, A.H., et al.: Generation and transmission of 21.4-Gbaud PDM 64-QAM using a novel high-power DAC driving a single I/Q modulator. J. Light Technol. 30(4), 532–536 (2012)
Choi H.Y., et al.: A new multi-purpose optical transmitter for higher-order QAM generation. In: Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OM3C-4
Esmail, M.A., Ragheb, A., Fathallah, H., Alouini, M.S.: Investigation and demonstration of high speed full-optical hybrid FSO/fiber communication system under light sand storm condition. IEEE Photonics J. 9(1), 1–12 (2017)
Huang, M.-F., et al.: Terabit/s Nyquist superchannels in high capacity fiber field trials using DP-16QAM and DP-8QAM modulation formats. J. Light Technol. 32(4), 776–782 (2014)
Huang, Y.-K., et al.: High-capacity fiber field trial using terabit/s all-optical OFDM superchannels with DP-QPSK and DP-8QAM/DP-QPSK modulation. J. Light Technol. 31(4), 546–553 (2013)
Pfeifle, J., et al.: Coherent terabit communications using a quantum-dash mode-locked laser and self-homodyne detection. Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition (OFC), 2015, Los Angeles, CA, (2015), W2A.19
Khan, M.Z.M., Ng, T.K., Lee, C.S., Bhattacharya, P., Ooi, B.S.: Investigation of chirped InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dash lasers as broadband emitters. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(2), 51–61 (2014)
Liu, Z., et al.: High-capacity directly modulated optical transmitter for 2-\(\mu \)m spectral region. J. Lightwave Technol. 33(7), 1373–1379 (2015)
Zhou, X.: Efficient clock and carrier recovery algorithms for single-carrier coherent optical systems: a systematic review on challenges and recent progress. IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 31(2), 35–45 (2014)
Szafraniec, B., et al.: Performance monitoring and measurement techniques for coherent optical systems. J. Light Technol. 31(4), 648–663 (2013)
Pecorino, S., Mandelli, S., Barletta, L., Magarini, M., Spalvieri, A.: Bootstrapping iterative demodulation and decoding without pilot symbols. J. Lightwave Technol. 33(17), 3613–3622 (2015)
Magarini, M., Spalvieri, A., Vacondio, F., Bertolini, M., Pepe, M., Gavioli, G.: Empirical modeling and simulation of phase noise in long-haul coherent optical transmission systems. Opt. express 19, 22455–22461 (2011)
Fatadin, I., Ives, D., Savory, S.J.: Blind equalization and carrier phase recovery in a 16-QAM optical coherent system. J. Light Technol. 27, 3042–3049 (2009)
Jain, A., Krishnamurthy, P.K.: Phase noise tracking and compensation in coherent optical systems using Kalman filter. IEEE Commun. Lett. 20(6), 1072–1075 (2016)
Lange, S., Kaiser, R., Gruner, M., Schell, M.: Experimental study of phase and intensity noise in a monolithically integrated DFB laser IQ modulator PIC at QPSK operation. In: ECOC 2016; 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication, Dusseldorf, Germany, pp. 1–3 (2016)
Mizuochi, T.: Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairments. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 544–554 (2006)
The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research Group No. (RG-1438-092).
About this article
Cite this article
Ragheb, A.M., Fathallah, H. & Alshebeili, S.A. Laser phase noise impact on optical DP-MQAM: experimental investigation. Photon Netw Commun 35, 237–244 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11107-017-0734-8