Silicon Coordinates DNA Replication with Transcription of the Replisome Factors in Diatom Algae
Transcription is a key in coordinating the action of actors involved in DNA replication. The present research characterizes the impact of silicon on transcription for selected replicative genes in two diatom microalgae: Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. We show a relationship between the RNA expression of major replicative actors and silicon concentration using q-PCR and SSH. Thanks to phylogenetical homologies with diatoms and eukaryotic genes, these results could indicate a new regulation process of cell cycle for all living beings. Our results tend to confirm initially the central role of mRNA expression control in regulating DNA replication. Silicon, as an epigenomic element, seems to impact on the expression of 15 target genes belonging to the following groups: the polymerases group, POLA2 p68 and PRIM1 p49 (DNA polymerase α/primase), DNA polymerase ε POLE1, DNA polymerase δ POLD, the PCNA sliding clamp, the ternary complex (CMG group, CDC45, subunit PSF2 of GINS, helicase subunit MCM 2,3,6), and the “maturation-promoting factor” (MPF group, CDK-A (p34cdc2). Finally, we demonstrate, by comparing the two models, that silicon promotes the expression of POLD1, POLE1, and POLE3, and PSF2 mRNA expression.
KeywordsCell cycle Silicon Epigenetic Replisome Transcription level Diatom microalgae
Mitosis promoter factor
Origin recognition complex
- P. tricornutum
Replication protein A
Quantitative reverse transcription PCR
Suppressive subtractive hybridization
- T. pseudonana
We are grateful to JGI institute for providing access to T. pseudonana genomes. We thank Dr. Chris Bowler from E.N.S. for providing us the cell strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and we also thank him for associating us to the Phaeodactylum tricornutum genotyping team. We thank the cell biology department of M.M.S. laboratory from the University of Nantes, for offering us a technical assistance.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interests.
- Akuginova ZD (2004) The specific features of tuberculosis in the biogeochemical subregions of the Republic of Chuvashia. Probl TuberkBoleznLegk:9–13Google Scholar
- Armbrust EV, Berges JA, Bowler C, Green BR, Martinez D, Putnam NH, Zhou S, Allen AE, Apt KE, Bechner M, Brzezinski MA, Chaal BK, Chiovitti A, Davis AK, Demarest MS, Detter JC, Glavina T, Goodstein D, Hadi MZ, Hellsten U, Hildebrand M, Jenkins BD, Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Kröger N, Lau WW, Lane TW, Larimer FW, Lippmeier JC, Lucas S, Medina M, Montsant A, Obornik M, Parker MS, Palenik B, Pazour GJ, Richardson PM, Rynearson TA, Saito MA, Schwartz DC, Thamatrakoln K, Valentin K, Vardi A, Wilkerson FP, Rokhsar DS (2004) The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: ecology, evolution, and metabolism. Science 306:79–86CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bowler C, Allen AE, Badger JH, Grimwood J, Jabbari K, Kuo A, Maheswari U, Martens C, Maumus F, Otillar RP, Rayko E, Salamov A, Vandepoele K, Beszteri B, Gruber A, Heijde M, Katinka M, Mock T, Valentin K, Verret F, Berges JA, Brownlee C, Cadoret JP, Chiovitti A, Choi CJ, Coesel S, De Martino A, Detter JC, Durkin C, Falciatore A, Fournet J, Haruta M, Huysman MJ, Jenkins BD, Jiroutova K, Jorgensen RE, Joubert Y, Kaplan A, Kröger N, Kroth PG, La Roche J, Lindquist E, Lommer M, Martin-Jézéquel V, Lopez PJ, Lucas S, Mangogna M, McGinnis K, Medlin LK, Montsant A, Oudot-Le Secq MP, Napoli C, Obornik M, Parker MS, Petit JL, Porcel BM, Poulsen N, Robison M, Rychlewski L, Rynearson TA, Schmutz J, Shapiro H, Siaut M, Stanley M, Sussman MR, Taylor AR, Vardi A, von Dassow P, Vyverman W, Willis A, Wyrwicz LS, Rokhsar DS, Weissenbach J, Armbrust EV, Green BR, Van de Peer Y, Grigoriev IV (2008) The Phaeodactylum genome reveals the evolutionary history of diatom genomes. Nature 456:239–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang S, Zhang C (2011) The coordination between DNA replication initiation and other cell cycle events. In: Seligmann H (ed) DNA replication initiation and other cell cycle events, chapter 11Google Scholar
- Huysman MJ, Martens C, Vandepoele K, Gillard J, Rayko E, Heijde M, Bowler C, Inzé D, Van de Peer Y, De Veylder L, Vyverman W (2010) Genome-wide analysis of the diatom cell cycle unveils a novel type of cyclins involved in environmental signaling. Genome Biol 11(2):R17CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Israël M (2014) Signaling and metabolism in cancer: endocrine pancreas deficiency and hybrid anabolism—catabolism, drugs that undo the process. Cancer Ther 10:1–12Google Scholar
- Karschau J, Blow JJ, de Moura AP (2012) Optimal placement of origins for DNA replication. Phys Rev Lett 108(5)Google Scholar
- Madison KE, Abdelmeguid MR, Jones-Foster EN, Nakai H (2012) A new role for translation initiation factor 2 in maintaining genome integrity. PLoS Genet 8(4)Google Scholar
- Price CT, Koval KJ, Langford JR (2013) Silicon: a review of its potential role in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Endocrinol 2013(6):1–6Google Scholar