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Co-incorporation of rice straw and green manure with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application maintained rice yield and lowered ammonia volatilization

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Co-incorporation of rice straw (RS) and green manure (GM) is an effective practice for replacing nitrogen (N) fertilizer and lowering reactive N losses to the environment. This study aimed to determine the effects of incorporating RS and/or GM with 40% reduction in N fertilizer application on ammonia (NH3) volatilization and rice N uptake.


A 3-year field trial with six treatments was established: no N fertilizer (N0), 60% of conventional N fertilizer application rate (N60), N60 with RS (SN60) or GM (MN60) incorporation alone, N60 with co-incorporation of RS and GM (SMN60), and 100% of conventional N rate (N100).


Similar rice grain and straw yields, N uptake and applied N recovery efficiency were obtained by the treatments of MN60, SMN60, and N100. Compared with N100, all other treatments significantly lowered NH3 fluxes, primarily due to the lower NH4+-N concentration and pH in the surface water. The cumulative NH3 volatilization from the MN60 and SMN60 treatments was decreased by 24.2%-57.0% and 13.6%-41.1%, respectively, compared with that in N100 treatment. The SN60, MN60 and SMN60 treatments resulted in a lower loss rate of applied N through NH3 volatilization than N60 and N100. Furthermore, the incorporations of RS and/or GM could enhance the concentration of soil organic matter, total N, and NH4+-N.


This study suggests that replacing 40% of conventional N fertilizer input by co-incorporation of RS and GM can maintain rice yield and N uptake and lower NH3 volatilization.

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The present study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 32372818), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFD1700200), and the earmarked fund for CARS-Green manure (CARS-22).

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Correspondence to Mingjian Geng.

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Li, D., Zhu, Q., Chen, X. et al. Co-incorporation of rice straw and green manure with reduced nitrogen fertilizer application maintained rice yield and lowered ammonia volatilization. Plant Soil (2024).

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