Skip to main content

Isotopic deviations of water extracted from carbonate soil by cryogenic vacuum extraction: implication for root water uptake analysis

Abstract

Purpose

Isotope-based root water uptake analysis usually involves cryogenic vacuum extraction (CVE) of water from soil and other water-holding materials, according to the assumption that no isotopic fractionation occurs during the related processes. Recently, a growing body of literature identified isotopic deviations that were caused by CVE. However, the isotopic deviations of water extracted from carbonate soils by CVE are undefined, which prohibits dependable utilization of stable water isotopes in CVE involved studies, especially in karst regions.

Methods

Three types of water-holding material, weathered carbonate bedrock, typical karst soils that were kept intact or washed with diluted HCL thus with varying levels of carbonate content were oven-dried and spiked with various amounts of reference water. The recovery of known isotope values was tested in all rewetted samples by using one CVE system.

Results

No significant differences were detected between the isotope values of the water extracted from the weathered carbonate bedrock and the input water. However, isotope values of water extracted from the soils were significantly more negative than the input water. Moreover, the magnitude of δD deviation was highly related to soil water content, while the magnitude of δ18O values was strongly dependent on the amount of carbonate present.

Conclusions

Considering the isotopic deviations caused by CVE and the obstacles associated with the calibration process, the application of an isotope-based method that involves CVE needs to be adapted to the specific properties of karst regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Data availability

Data will be supplied under request.

Code availability

Not applicable.

References

  • Adams RE, Hyodo A, SantaMaria T et al (2020) Bound and mobile soil water isotope ratios are affected by soil texture and mineralogy, whereas extraction method influences their measurement. Hydrol Process 34:991–1003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allen ST, Kirchner JW (2022) Potential effects of cryogenic extraction biases on plant water source partitioning inferred from xylem-water isotope ratios. Hydrol Process 36:e14483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Araguás-Araguás L, Rozanski K, Gonfiantini R, Louvat D (1995) Isotope effects accompanying vacuum extraction of soil water for stable isotope analyses. J Hydrol 168:159–171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barbeta A, Jones SP, Clavé L et al (2019) Unexplained hydrogen isotope offsets complicate the identification and quantification of tree water sources in a riparian forest. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 23:2129–2146

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barbeta A, Gimeno TE, Clave L et al (2020) An explanation for the isotopic offset between soil and stem water in a temperate tree species. New Phytol 227:766–779

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benettin P, Volkmann THM, von Freyberg J et al (2018) Effects of climatic seasonality on the isotopic composition of evaporating soil waters. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 22:2881–2890

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beyer M, Penna D (2021) On the Spatio-Temporal Under-Representation of Isotopic Data in Ecohydrological Studies. Front Water 3:643013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Beyer M, Hamutoko JT, Wanke H, Gaj M, Koeniger P (2018) Examination of deep root water uptake using anomalies of soil water stable isotopes, depth-controlled isotopic labeling and mixing models. J Hydrol 566:122–136

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bowers WH, Mercer JJ, Pleasants MS, Williams DG (2020) A combination of soil water extraction methods quantifies the isotopic mixing of waters held at separate tensions in soil. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 24:4045–4060

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cao JH, Yuan DX, Zhang C, Jiang ZC (2004) Karst ecosystem constrained by geological conditions in southwest China. Earth Environ 32:1–8 (in Chinese with English abstract)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carrière SD, Martin-StPaul NK, Cakpo CB et al (2020) The role of deep vadose zone water in tree transpiration during drought periods in karst settings-Insights from isotopic tracing and leaf water potential. Sci Total Environ 699:134332

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chen Z, Auler AS, Bakalowicz M et al (2017) The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe. Hydrogeol J 25:771–785

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen Y, Helliker BR, Tang X, Li F, Zhou Y, Song X (2020) Stem water cryogenic extraction biases estimation in deuterium isotope composition of plant source water. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 117:33345–33350

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dawson TE, Ehleringer JR (1991) Streamside trees that do not use stream water. Nature 350:335–337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dawson TE, Mambelli S, Plamboeck AH, Templer PH, Tu KP (2002) Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:507–559

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding Y, Nie Y, Schwinning S et al (2018) A novel approach for estimating groundwater use by plants in rock-dominated habitats. J Hydrol 565:760–769

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ding Y, Nie Y, Chen H, Wang K, Querejeta JI (2021) Water uptake depth is coordinated with leaf water potential, water use efficiency and drought vulnerability in karst vegetation. New Phytol 229:1339–1353

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ehleringer JR, Roden J, Dawson TE (2000) Assessing ecosystem-level water relations through stable isotope ratio analyses. In: Sala OE (ed) Methodsin ecosystem science. Springer, New York, pp 181–214

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Ellsworth PZ, Williams DG (2007) Hydrogen isotope fractionation during water uptake by woody xerophytes. Plant Soil 291:93–107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ford DC, Williams PW (2013) Karst hydrogeology and geomorphology. Wiley, Hoboken

  • Gaj M, Kaufhold S, Koeniger P, Beyer M, Himmelsbach T (2017) Mineral mediated isotope fractionation of soil water. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 31:269–280

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith GR, Allen ST, Braun S et al (2019) Spatial variation in throughfall, soil, and plant water isotopes in a temperate forest. Ecohydrology 12:e2059

    Google Scholar 

  • Hahm WJ, Rempe DW, Dralle DN, Dawson TE, Dietrich WE (2020) Oak transpiration drawn from the weathered bedrock vadose zone in the summer dry season. Water Resour Res 56:e2020WR027419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hartmann A, Goldscheider N, Wagener T, Lange J, Weiler M (2014) Karst water resources in a changing world: Review of hydrological modeling approaches. Rev Geophys 52:218–242

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hasenmueller EA, Gu X, Weitzman JN et al (2017) Weathering of rock to regolith: The activity of deep roots in bedrock fractures. Geoderma 300:11–31

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones DP, Graham RC (1993) Water-holding characteristics of weathered granitic rock in chaparral and forest ecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:256–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JH, Jobbágy EG, Richter DD, Trumbore SE, Jackson RB (2020) Agriculture acceleration of soil carbonate weathering. Global Change Biol 26:5988–6002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knighton J, Kuppel S, Smith A et al (2020) Using isotopes to incorporate tree water storage and mixing dynamics into a distributed ecohydrologic modelling framework. Ecohydrology 13:e2201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koeniger P, Marshall JD, Link T, Mulch A (2011) An inexpensive, fast, and reliable method for vacuum extraction of soil and plant water for stable isotope analyses by mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Sp 25:3041–3048

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kukowski KR, Schwinning S, Schwartz BF (2013) Hydraulic responses to extreme drought conditions in three co-dominant tree species in shallow soil over bedrock. Oecologia 171:819–830

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kulmatiski A, Adler PB, Foley KM (2020) Hydrologic niches explain species coexistence and abundance in a shrub–steppe system. J Ecol 108:998–1008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lin GH, Sternberg LDL (1993) Hydrogen isotopic fractionation by plant roots during water uptake in coastal wetland plants. In: Ehleringer JR, Hall AE, Farquhar GD (eds) Stable isotopes and plant carbon-water relations. Academic, Cambridge, pp 497–510

  • Liu W, Chen H, Zou Q, Nie Y (2021) Divergent root water uptake depth and coordinated hydraulic traits among typical karst plantations of subtropical China: Implication for plant water adaptation under precipitation changes. Agric Water Manag 249:106798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martín-Gómez P, Barbeta A, Voltas J et al (2015) Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy: A reliable tool for the investigation of plant-water sources? New Phytol 207:914–927

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meißner M, Köhler M, Schwendenmann L, Hölscher D, Dyckmans J (2014) Soil water uptake by trees using water stable isotopes (δ2H andδ18O) – a method test regarding soil moisture, texture and carbonate. Plant Soil 376:327–335

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Millar C, Pratt D, Schneider DJ, McDonnell JJ (2018) A comparison of extraction systems for plant water stable isotope analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Sp 32:1031–1044

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newberry SL, Nelson DB, Kahmen A (2017) Cryogenic vacuum artifacts do not affect plant water-uptake studies using stable isotope analysis. Ecohydrology 10:e1892

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nie Y, Chen H, Wang K et al (2011) Seasonal water use patterns of woody species growing on the continuous dolostone outcrops and nearby thin soils in subtropical China. Plant Soil 341:399–412

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nie Y, Chen H, Wang K, Yang J (2012) Water source utilization by woody plants growing on dolomite outcrops and nearby soils during dry seasons in karst region of Southwest China. J Hydrol 420–421:264–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nie Y, Chen H, Ding Y et al (2019) Qualitative identification of hydrologically different water sources used by plants in rock-dominated environments. J Hydrol 573:386–394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oerter E, Finstad K, Schaefer J et al (2014) Oxygen isotope fractionation effects in soil water via interaction with cations (Mg, Ca, K, Na) adsorbed to phyllosilicate clay minerals. J Hydrol 515:1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orlowski N, Frede HG, Brüggemann N, Breuer L (2013) Validation and application of a cryogenic vacuum extraction system for soil and plant water extraction for isotope analysis. J Sens Sens Syst 2:179–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orlowski N, Breuer L, McDonnell JJ (2016) Critical issues with cryogenic extraction of soil water for stable isotope analysis. Ecohydrology 9:1–5

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Orlowski N, Breuer L, Angeli N et al (2018) Inter-laboratory comparison of cryogenic water extraction systems for stable isotope analysis of soil water. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 22:3619–3637

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Palacio S, Azorin J, Monterrat-Marti G, Ferrio JP (2014) The crystallization water of gypsum rocks is a relevant water source for plants. Nat Commum 5:4660

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedrazas MA, Hahm WJ, Huang M et al (2021) The relationship between topography, bedrock weathering, and water storage across a sequence of ridges and valleys. J Geophys Res 126:e2020JF005848

    Google Scholar 

  • Penna D, Hopp L, Scandellari F et al (2018) Ideas and perspectives: Tracing terrestrial ecosystem water fluxes using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes – challenges and opportunities from an interdisciplinary perspective. Biogeosciences 15:6399–6415

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rose K, Graham R, Parker D (2003) Water source utilization by Pinus jeffreyi and Arctostaphylos patula on thin soils over bedrock. Oecologia 134:46–54

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schultz NM, Griffis TJ, Lee X, Baker JM (2011) Identification and correction of spectral contamination in 2H/1H and 18O/16O measured in leaf, stem, and soil water. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25:3360–3368

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwinning S (2008) The water relations of two evergreen tree species in a karst savanna. Oecologia 158:373–383

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schwinning S (2010) The ecohydrology of roots in rocks. Ecohydrology 3:238–245

    Google Scholar 

  • Sprenger M, Herbstritt B, Weiler M (2015) Established methods and new opportunities for pore water stable isotope analysis. Hydrol Process 29:5174–5192

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thielemann L, Gerjets R, Dyckmans J (2019) Effects of soil-bound water exchange on the recovery of spike water by cryogenic water extraction. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 33:405–410

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Volkmann THM, Weiler M (2014) Continual in situ monitoring of pore water stable isotopes in the subsurface. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 18:1819–1833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • von Freyberg J, Allen ST, Grossiord C, Dawson TE (2020) Plant and root-zone water isotopes are difficult to measure, explain, and predict: Some practical recommendations for determining plant water sources. Methods Ecol Evol 11:1352–1367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wen M, Si B, Lu Y et al (2021) Water recovery rate and isotopic signature of cryogenic vacuum extracted spiked soil water following oven-drying at different temperatures. Hydrol Process 35:e14248

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • West AG, Patrickson SJ, Ehleringer JR (2006) Water extraction times for plant and soil materials used in stable isotope analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 20:1317–1321

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Chen H, Nie Y, Zhang W, Wang K (2016) Spatial variability of shallow soil moisture and its stable isotope values on a karst hillslope. Geoderma 264:61–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Chen H, Nie Y, Wang K (2019) Dynamic variations in profile soil water on karst hillslopes in Southwest China. Catena 172:655–663

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang W, Zhao J, Pan F et al (2015) Changes in nitrogen and phosphorous limitation along a karst ecosystem succession gradient in Southwest China. Plant Soil 391:77–91

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [41930866, 31971438]; the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation [2018GXNSFGA281003]; and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China [2018397].

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

WL, XM, and YN planned and designed the research; JN performed experiments, analyzed data and wrote first version of the manuscript under ZW and HC’s guidance; WL contributed significantly to data analysis and interpretation and YN re-wrote the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yunpeng Nie.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

Not applicable

Consent to participate

Not applicable. 

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest or competing interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Xinhua He.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

ESM 1

(DOCX 15.3 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jiang, N., Wang, Z., Ma, X. et al. Isotopic deviations of water extracted from carbonate soil by cryogenic vacuum extraction: implication for root water uptake analysis. Plant Soil 475, 79–89 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05455-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-022-05455-9

Keywords

  • Plant water source
  • Water extraction
  • Stable isotopes
  • Weathered bedrock
  • Karst ecosystems