Numerous invasive plant species can increase soil nitrate (NO3−) by altering the nitrification process through plant-soil microbe interactions with ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). We evaluated how the invasive species Microstegium vimineum influenced physico-chemical soil properties, inorganic nitrogen (N) cycling, and AOA and AOB abundances under various environmental conditions.
We paired 75 M. vimineum-invaded plots with 75 neighboring reference plots across forests, open fields, and forested wetlands within a state park in the Mid-Atlantic United States that has received high levels of N deposition. Soils were sampled for physico-chemical properties, NO3− and ammonium (NH4+) pools and availability, and AOA and AOB abundances.
There were multiple soil impacts associated with M. vimineum across all ecosystems, most consistent were increased soil pH and increased NO3− pools. For other impacts, the directionality and effect sizes varied among ecosystems (e.g. NH4+ pools were 34% lower in forests, 35% lower in open fields, and 90% higher in wetlands relative to reference plots). Finally, forests had nearly all of impacts predicted by a pH-mediated nitrification plant-soil feedback.
This study highlights the ability of an invasive grass to alter N cycling and soil properties in forests, open fields, and wetlands that have received high N deposition. We also show how invader-mediated impacts to N cycling may be dependent on the context of the ecosystem being invaded, including its hydrology, ambient soil conditions, and substrate-availability.
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We would like to thank Ridley Creek State Park for allowing us access to the property and the privilege to sample throughout the park (Permit #: 2016-40). We would also like to thank everyone who aided Rippel and Succi in field work, including: Tara Malanga, Drew Freed, Benjamin Gibbons, Ben Malone, Colin O’Mara, Frasier Green, Sean Lee, and Libby O’Brien. Revisions of this paper were greatly improved by anonymous reviewers, who provided extensive and useful feedback, as well Georgetown University’s EEB Journal Club and Madeline Buhman.
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Rippel, T.M., Iosue, C.L., Succi, P.J. et al. Comparing the impacts of an invasive grass on nitrogen cycling and ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in high-nitrogen forests, open fields, and wetlands. Plant Soil 449, 65–77 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04458-8
- Invasive species
- Nitrogen cycling
- Microstegium vimineum
- Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea
- Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria