Skip to main content

Nitrogen limitation and calcifuge plant strategies constrain the establishment of native vegetation on magnetite mine tailings

Abstract

Background and aims

Mine tailings are challenging substrates for ecological restoration, as the establishment of diverse native plant communities can be constrained by a range of edaphic factors. Thus, the ability to restore native vegetation communities will depend upon developing a clear evidence-base as to what types of species and communities are likely sustainably reinstated on such altered substrates. As global tailings production and the cumulative footprint of tailings storage facilities continue to grow, understanding the effect of edaphic filters on community establishment is foundational for developing effective restoration solutions for tailings.

Methods

We standardised growth rate estimates derived from nine root and shoot parameters for plants grown in magnetite tailings and natural topsoil, using crops (eight species) to characterise previously identified plant responses and native plants (40 species) to understand the impact of edaphic conditions on the species pool available for restoration.

Results

The edaphic conditions of unweathered magnetite tailings select against the majority of native plant species and nutrient-acquisition guilds (approximately 75% of reference floristic biodiversity), with plant development on tailings compared with natural topsoil compromised in a number of variables in all but six species. Plant growth on tailings was limited by a lack of available nitrogen (N) and high alkalinity (pH >9), and seedling growth and development was positively associated with seed N concentration. Calcicole species and species from N2-fixing and cluster root-producing strategies performed better on tailings than calcifuge species and species without specialised nutrient-acquisition strategy or those reliant upon mycorrhizal associations.

Conclusions

The return of plant communities native to highly weathered, acidic soils on magnetite tailings is likely unsuccessful, unless strategies to ameliorate substrate hostility through acidification of the soil profile and improving N availability are prioritised.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  • Anand RR, Payne M (2002) Regolith geology of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia: implications for exploration. Aust J Earth Sci 49:3–162

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barak P, Jobe BO, Krueger AR, Peterson LA, Laird DA (1997) Effects of long-term soil acidification due to nitrogen fertilizer inputs in Wisconsin. Plant Soil 197:61–69

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bates D, Mächler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2014) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw 67:1–48

    Google Scholar 

  • Beard JS (1990) Plant life of Western Australia. Kangaroo Press, Perth

    Google Scholar 

  • Bolan NS, Hedley MJ, White RE (1991) Processes of soil acidification during nitrogen cycling with emphasis on legume based pastures. Plant Soil 134:53–63

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boussadia O, Steppe K, Zgallai H, El Hadj SB, Braham M, Lemeur R, Van Labeke MC (2010) Effects of nitrogen deficiency on leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and biomass production in two olive cultivars ‘Meski’and ‘Koroneiki’. Sci Hort 123:336–342

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brooks ME, Kristensen K, van Benthem KJ, Magnusson A, Berg CW, Nielsen A, Skaug HJ, Machler M, Bolker BM (2017) glmmTMB balances speed and flexibility among packages for zero-inflated generalized linear mixed modeling. R Journal 9:378–400

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown AM, Warton DI, Andrew NR, Binns M, Cassis G, Gibb H (2014) The fourth-corner solution–using predictive models to understand how species traits interact with the environment. Method Ecol Evol 5:344–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brundrett MC (2009) Mycorrhizal associations and other means of nutrition of vascular plants: understanding the global diversity of host plants by resolving conflicting information and developing reliable means of diagnosis. Plant Soil 320:37–77

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burström HG (1968) Calcium and plant growth. Biological Reviews 43:287–316

  • Cakmak I, Hengeler C, Marschner H (1994) Partitioning of shoot and root dry matter and carbohydrates in bean plants suffering from phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency. J Exp Bot 45:1245–1250

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clemens S, Palmgren MG, Krämer U (2002) A long way ahead: understanding and engineering plant metal accumulation. Trends Plant Sci 7:309–315

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cleveland CC, Townsend AR, Schimel DS, Fisher H, Howarth RW, Hedin LO, Perakis SS, Latty EF, Von Fischer JC, Elseroad A, Wasson MF (1999) Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems. Global Biogeochem Cycl 13:623–645

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cresswell ID, Bridgewater PB (1985) Dune vegetation of the swan coastal plain, Western Australia. J R Soc West Aust 67:137–148

    Google Scholar 

  • Cross AT, Lambers H (2017) Young calcareous soil chronosequences as a model for ecological restoration on alkaline mine tailings. Sci Tot Environ 607-608:168–175

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cross AT, Stevens J, Dixon KW (2017) One giant leap for mankind: can ecopoiesis avert mine tailings disasters? Plant Soil 421:1–5

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cross AT, Young R, Nevill P, McDonald T, Prach K, Aronson J, Wardell-Johnson G, Dixon KW (2018) Appropriate aspirations for effective post-mining restoration and rehabilitation: a response to Kaźmierczak et al. Environ Earth Sci 77:256

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cross AT, Stevens JC, Sadler R, Moreira-Grez B, Ivanov D, Zhong H, Dixon KW, Lambers H (2019) Compromised root development constrains the establishment potential of native plants in unamended alkaline post-mining substrates. Plant Soil. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3876-2

  • Denton MD, Coventry DR, Bellotti WD, Howieson JG (2000) Distribution, abundance and symbiotic effectiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii from alkaline pasture soils in South Australia. Aust J Exp Ag 40:25–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DMIRS (2017) Statistics digest 2016–2017. Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety, Government of Western Australia, Perth

    Google Scholar 

  • DMP (2015) Guidelines for preparing mine closure plans. Department of Mines and Petroleum/Environmental Protection Authority, Government of Western Australia, Perth

    Google Scholar 

  • DMP-EPA (2015) Guidelines for preparing mine closure plans. Government of Western Australia, Department of Mines and Petroleum and Environmental Protection Authority. Perth, Australia

  • Egamberdiyeva D, Qarshieva D, Davranov K (2004a) Growth and yield of soybean varieties inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp in N-deficient calcareous soils. Biol Fert Soil 40:144–146

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Egamberdiyeva D, Qarshieva D, Davranov K (2004b) The use of Bradyrhizobium to enhance growth and yield of soybean in calcareous soil in Uzbekistan. J Plant Growth Reg 23:54–57

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • EPA (2009a) Karara Iron Ore Project. Report and recommendations of the Environmental Protection Authority, Report 1321. Government of Western Australia. Perth, Australia

  • EPA (2009b) Koolanooka/Blue Hills Direct Shipping Ore Mining Project Shires of Morawa and Perenjori. Report of the Environmental Protection Authority, Report 1328. Government of Western Australia. Perth, Australia

  • Fang RY, Tang C, Raphael C (1998) Factors affecting soil acidification under legumes. II. Effect of phosphorus supply. Aust J Ag Res 49:657–664

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fox JED (1985) Ecological notes on Acacia species 2: Acacia cyclops. Mulga Res Ctr J 8:59–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Francis R, Read D (1994) The contributions of mycorrhizal fungi to the determination of plant community structure. Plant Soil 159:11–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Geoscience Australia (2013) Australia’s mineral resource assessment 2013. Australian Government, Canberra

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginocchio R, León-Lobos P, Arellano EC, Anic V, Ovalle JF, Baker AJ (2017) Soil physicochemical factors as environmental filters for spontaneous plant colonization of abandoned tailing dumps. Environ Sci Poll Res 24:13484–13496

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo W, Nazim H, Liang Z, Yang D (2016) Magnesium deficiency in plants: an urgent problem. Crop J 4:83–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper KT, Pendleton RL (1993) Cyanobacteria and cyanolichens: can they enhance availability of essential minerals for higher plants? Great Basin Nat 1:59–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes PE, Turner BL, Lambers H, Laliberté E (2014) Foliar nutrient concentrations and resorption efficiency in plants of contrasting nutrient-acquisition strategies along a 2-million-year dune chronosequence. J Ecol 102:396–410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes PE, Guilherme Pereira C, Clode PL, Lambers H (2018) Calcium-enhanced phosphorus-toxicity in calcifuge and soil-indifferent Proteaceae along the Jurien Bay chronosequence. New Phytol 221:764–777. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15447

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haynes RJ (1983) Soil acidification induced by leguminous crops. Grass Forage Sci 38:1–1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haynes RJ (1990) Active ion uptake and maintenance of cation-anion balance: a critical examination of their role in regulating rhizosphere pH. Plant Soil 126:247–264

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hermans C, Hammond JP, White PJ, Verbruggen N (2006) How do plants respond to nutrient shortage by biomass allocation? Trends Plant Sci 11:610–617

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinsinger P, Plassard C, Tang C, Jaillard B (2003) Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review. Plant Soil 248:43–59

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hodge A, Fitter AH (2010) Substantial nitrogen acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from organic material has implications for N cycling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13754–13759

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hodge A, Campbell CD, Fitter AH (2001) An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus accelerates decomposition and acquires nitrogen directly from organic material. Nature 413:297–299

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hopper SD (2009) OCBIL theory: towards an integrated understanding of the evolution, ecology and conservation of biodiversity on old, climatically buffered, infertile landscapes. Plant Soil 322:49–86

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hopper SD, Silveira FA, Fiedler PL (2016) Biodiversity hotspots and OCBIL theory. Plant Soil 403:167–216

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang L, Baumgartl T, Mulligan D (2011) Organic matter amendment in copper mine tailings improving primary physical structure, water storage and native grass growth. In: Sanchez M, Mulligan D, Wilertz J (eds) Enviromine 2011, 2nd international seminar on environmental issues in the mining industry. Santiago, Chile

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang L, Baumgartl T, Mulligan D (2012) Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings? Ann Bot 110:223–238

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang L, Li X, Nguyen TA (2015) Extremely high phosphate sorption capacity in cu-Pb-Zn mine tailings. PLoS One 10:e0135364

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobi CM, Fonseca do Carmo F (2008) The contribution of ironstone outcrops to plant diversity in the Iron quadrangle, a threatened Brazilian landscape. AMBIO 37:324–326

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jamieson HE (2011) Geochemistry and mineralogy of solid mine waste: essential knowledge for predicting environmental impact. Elements 7:381–386

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jefferies RL, Willis AJ (1964) Studies on the calcicole‐calcifuge habit: II. The influence of calcium on the growth and establishment of four species in soil and sand cultures. Journal of Ecology 52:691–707

  • Krüger M, Teste FP, Laliberté E, Lambers H, Coghlan M, Zemunik G, Bunce M (2015) The rise and fall of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity during ecosystem retrogression. Mol Ecol 24:4912–4930

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kumaresan D, Cross AT, Moreira-Grez B, Kariman K, Nevill P, Stevens J, Allcock RJN, O’Donnell AG, Dixon KW, Whiteley AS (2017) Microbial functional capacity is preserved within engineered soil formulations used in mine site restoration. Sci Rep 7:564. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00650-6

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Lamb D, Erskine PD, Fletcher A (2015) Widening gap between expectations and practice in Australian minesite rehabilitation. Ecological Management and Restoration 16_186–195

  • Lambers HA, Poorter H (1992) Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences. Adv Ecol Res 23:187–261

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lambers H, Chapin FS, Pons TL (2008) Plant physiological ecology. Springer, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Lambers H, Bishop JG, Hopper SD, Laliberté E, Zúniga-Feest A (2012) Phosphorus-mobilization ecosystem engineering: the roles of cluster roots and carboxylate exudation in young P-limited ecosystems. Ann Bot 110:329–348

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lambers H, Albornoz F, Kotula L, Laliberté E, Ranathunge K, Teste FP, Zemunik G (2018) How belowground interactions contribute to the coexistence of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal species in severely phosphorus-impoverished hyperdiverse ecosystems. Plant Soil 30:1–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Landloch (2006) Soil quality assessment – Karara Iron ore project. Landloch Pty Ltd, Perth, Australia

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee JA (1999) The calcicole-calcifuge problem revisited. Adv Bot Res 29:1–30

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Li L, Tilman D, Lambers H, Zhang FS (2014) Plant diversity and overyielding: insights from belowground facilitation of intercropping in agriculture. New Phytol 203:63–69

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Manning AD, Fischer J, Lindenmayer DB (2006) Scattered trees are keystone structures–implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 132:311–321

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Markey AS, Dillon SJ (2008) Flora and vegetation of the banded iron formations of the Yilgarn craton: the central Tallering land system. Cons Sci West Aust 7:121–149

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendez M, Maier R (2008) Phytoremediation of mine tailings in temperate and arid environments. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 7:47–59

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller RM, Carnes BA, Moorman TB (1985) Factors influencing survival of vesicular‐arbuscular mycorrhiza propagules during topsoil storage. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:259–266

  • Mishra A, Sharma SD, Pandey R, Mishra L (2004) Amelioration of a highly alkaline soil by trees in northern India. Soil Use and Management 20:325–332

  • Muler AL, Oliveira RS, Lambers H, Veneklaas EJ (2014) Does cluster-root activity of Banksia attenuata (Proteaceae) benefit phosphorus or micronutrient uptake and growth of neighbouring shrubs? Oecologia 174:23–31

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mullan L (2017) Mine closure plan, central Norseman gold mine project. Central Norseman Gold Corporation Pty Ltd, Norseman

    Google Scholar 

  • Mulligan DR, Gillespie MJ, Gravina AJ, Currey A (2006) An assessment of the direct revegetation strategy on the tailings storage facility at Kidston gold mine, North Queensland, Australia. In: Fourie A, Tibbett M (eds) Mine Closure 2006. Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Australia, pp 371–381

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Muñoz-Rojas M, Chilton A, Liyanage GS, Erickson TE, Merritt DJ, Neilan BA, Ooi MK (2018) Effects of indigenous soil cyanobacteria on seed germination and seedling growth of arid species used in restoration. Plant Soil 429:91–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-018-3607-8

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neumann G, Martinoia E (2002) Cluster roots–an underground adaptation for survival in extreme environments. Trend Plant Sci 7:162–167

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • NIMC (2017) Global iron ore production data; clarification of reporting from the USGS. National Minerals Information Centre, US Geological Survey. Mining Engineering Magazine

    Google Scholar 

  • Ovaskainen O, Tikhonov G, Norberg A, Guillaume Blanchet F, Duan L, Dunson D, Roslin T, Abrego N (2017) How to make more out of community data? A conceptual framework and its implementation as models and software. Ecol Lett 20:561–576

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pate JS, Unkovich MJ, Erskine PD, Stewart GR (1998) Australian Mulga ecosystems – 13C and 15N natural abundances of biota components and their ecophysiological significance. Plant Cell Environ 21:1231–1242

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Payne AL, van Vreeswyk AME, Leighton KA, Pringle HJ, Hennig P (1998) An inventory and survey of the sandstone-Yalgoo-Paynes find area, Western Australia. Technical bulletin 90. Department of Agriculture and Food. Perth, Australia

  • Pedrini S, Bhalsing K, Cross AT, Dixon KW (2018) Protocol development tool (PDT) for seed encrusting and pelleting. Seed Sci Tech 46:393–405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piovan MJ, Zapperi GM, Pratolongo PD (2014) Seed germination of Atriplex undulata under saline and alkaline conditions. Seed Science and Technology 42:286–292

  • Plénet D, Mollier A, Pellerin S (2000) Growth analysis of maize field crops under phosphorus deficiency. II. Radiation-use efficiency, biomass accumulation and yield components. Plant Soil 224:259–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pozo MJ, López-Ráez JA, Azcón-Aguilar C, García-Garrido JM (2015) Phytohormones as integrators of environmental signals in the regulation of mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytol 205:1431–1436

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roche C, Thygesen K, Baker E (eds) (2017) Mine tailings storage: safety is no accident. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi and Arendal

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodríguez-Echeverría S, Le Roux JJ, Crisóstomo JA, Ndlovu J (2011) Jack-of-all-trades and master of many? How does associated rhizobial diversity influence the colonization success of Australian Acacia species? Div Dist 17:946–957

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Santini TC, Fey MV (2013) Spontaneous vegetation encroachment upon bauxite residue (red mud) as an indicator and facilitator of in situ remediation processes. Env Sci Tech 47:12089–12096

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schliep EM, Gelfand AE, Mitchell RM, Aiello-Lammens ME, Peres-Neto S (2018) Assessing the joint behaviour of species traits as filtered by environment. Method Ecol Evol 9:716–727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh B (1989) Rehabilitation of alkaline wasteland on the Gangetic alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh, India, through afforestation. Land Degradation and Development 1:305–310

  • Slot M, Palow DT, Kitajima K (2013) Seed reserve dependency of Leucaena leucocephala seedling growth for nitrogen and phosphorus. Funct Plant Biol 40:244–250

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith SE, Smith FA, Jakobsen I (2003) Mycorrhizal fungi can dominate phosphate supply to plants irrespective of growth responses. Plant Physiol 133:16–20

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sprent JI, Ardley J, James EK (2017) Biogeography of nodulated legumes and their nitrogen-fixing symbionts. New Phytol 215:40–56

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stevens J, Dixon KW (2017) Is a science-policy nexus void leading to restoration failure in global mining? Env Sci Pol 72:52–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ström L (1997) Root exudation of organic acids: importance to nutrient availability and the calcifuge and calcicole behaviour of plants. Oikos 80:459–466

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun W, Ji B, Khoso SA, Tang H, Liu R, Wang L, Hu Y (2018) An extensive review on restoration technologies for mining tailings. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:33911–33925. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3423-y

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang C, Zheng SJ, Qiao YF, Wang GH, Han XZ (2006) Interactions between high pH and iron supply on nodulation and iron nutrition of Lupinus albus L. genotypes differing in sensitivity to iron deficiency. Plant and Soil 279:153–162

  • Thrall PH, Slattery JF, Broadhurst LM, Bickford S (2007) Geographic patterns of symbiont abundance and adaptation in native Australian Acacia–rhizobia interactions. J Ecol 95:1110–1122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tyler G (2003) Some ecophysiological and historical approaches to species richness and calcicole/calcifuges behavior – contribution to a debate. Folia Geobot 38:419–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ulrich B (1991) An ecosystem approach to soil acidification. Soil acidity. Pp. 28–79.Springer, Berlin

  • Virginia RA, Delwiche CC (1982) Natural 15N abundance of presumed N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing plants from selected ecosystems. Oecologia 54:317–325

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wehr J, Fulton I, Menzies N (2006) Revegetation strategies for bauxite re- finery residue: a case study of Alcan Gove in Northern Territory, Australia. Environ Manag 37:29–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White PJ, Broadley MR (2003) Calcium in plants. Ann Bot 92:487–511

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Woodman Environmental Consulting (2012) Regional flora and vegetation survey of the Karara to Minjar block. Woodman environmental Consulting Pty ltd. Perth, Australia

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu S, Liu Y, Southam G, Robertson L, Chiu TH, Cross AT, Dixon KW, Stevens JC, Zhong H, Chan T, Lu Y, Huang L (2018) Geochemical and mineralogical constraints in magnetite tailings potentially limit soil formation for direct phytostabilisation. Sci Total Environ 651:191–202

    Google Scholar 

  • Zemunik G, Turner BL, Lambers H, Laliberté E (2015) Diversity of plant nutrient-acquisition strategies increases during long-term ecosystem development. Nat Plants 1:15050

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zemunik G, Turner BL, Lambers H, Laliberté E (2016) Increasing plant species diversity and extreme species turnover accompany declining soil fertility along a long-term chronosequence in a biodiversity hotspot. J Ecol 104:792–805

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang S, Xue X, Liu X, Duan P, Yang H, Jiang T, Wang D, Liu R (2006) Current situation and comprehensive utilisation of iron ore tailing resources. J Mining Sci 42:403–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhao D, Reddy KR, Kakani VG, Reddy VR (2005) Nitrogen deficiency effects on plant growth, leaf photosynthesis, and hyperspectral reflectance properties of sorghum. European J Agronomy 22:391–403

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zohlen A, Tyler G (2000) Immobilization of tissue iron on calcareous soil: differences between calcicole and calcifuge plants. Oikos 89:95–106

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zohlen A, Tyler G (2004) Soluble inorganic tissue phosphorus and calcicole–calcifuge behaviour of plants. Ann Bot 94:427–432

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Australian Government through the Australian Research Council Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Mine Site Restoration (Project Number ICI150100041) and ARC Linkage project LP 019806. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and are not necessarily those of the Australian Government or Australian Research Council.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adam T. Cross.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible Editor: Juan Barcelo.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 42 kb)

ESM 2

(DOCX 13 kb)

ESM 3

(DOCX 21 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cross, A.T., Ivanov, D., Stevens, J.C. et al. Nitrogen limitation and calcifuge plant strategies constrain the establishment of native vegetation on magnetite mine tailings. Plant Soil 461, 181–201 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04021-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-04021-0

Keywords

  • Ecological restoration
  • Edaphic filters
  • Mine tailings
  • Plant development
  • Rehabilitation