Quantification of total belowground carbon (C) input and allocation to various pools in rice–soil systems depending on plant age, chase period, and nitrogen (N) availability.
Rice plants with and without N fertilization were 13CO2 pulse labelled at tillering, elongation, heading, and filling stages and were destructively sampled after 6 h of labelling and at the final harvest. The allocation of C by rice was also generalized based on literature pertaining to 94 studies with respect to plant age and chase period.
The C allocation in roots and soil strongly decreased with plant age. The literature review showed that C allocation to roots increased within the first 10 days of labelling and remained stable thereafter. Nitrogen fertilization had no effect on C allocation immediately after assimilation, but increased C remained belowground at 1.7-times that at final harvest. The total belowground net C input by one rice crop was 630–1080 kg C ha−1, including rhizodeposition of 160–330 kg C ha−1.
Multiple pulse labelling at various plant growth stages and taking multiple subsequent samples as well as nutrient availability should be considered for tracing C flows more accurately for precise C balance in rice paddy systems.
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This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFE0101100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41430860, 41671292 and 41761134095), the Youth Innovation Team Project of the Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017QNCXTD_GTD) and Hunan Province Base for Scientific and Technological Innovation Cooperation (2018WK4012). We thank the Public Service Technology Center, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture and Chinese Academy of Sciences for technical assistance. We thank Soil Science Consulting (https://soilscicon.wordpress.com) for help the paper preparation
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Zang, H., Xiao, M., Wang, Y. et al. Allocation of assimilated carbon in paddies depending on rice age, chase period and N fertilization: Experiment with 13CO2 labelling and literature synthesis. Plant Soil 445, 113–123 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-019-03995-1
- Belowground carbon allocation
- Carbon cycle
- Pulse labelling
- Paddy system
- Land use