Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 428, Issue 1–2, pp 321–333 | Cite as

The influence of drought strength on soil respiration in a woody savanna ecosystem, southwest China

  • Yuntong Liu
  • Jing Li
  • Yanqiang Jin
  • Yiping Zhang
  • Liqing Sha
  • John Grace
  • Qinghai Song
  • Wenjun Zhou
  • Aiguo Chen
  • Peiguang Li
  • Shubin Zhang
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Drought is expected to be more frequent and more intense with global warming. Our aim was to investigate how soil respiration would respond to different levels of precipitation exclusion (‘drought strength’).

Methods

We conducted a two-year drought experiment in a woody savanna ecosystem in south west of China, which consisted of four treatments: a control treatment (CK); 30% precipitation exclusion (PE3), 50% precipitation exclusion (PE5) and 70% precipitation exclusion (PE7).

Results

The cumulative soil respiration rates were significantly decreased in both rainy and dry seasons as drought became more intense. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil moisture decreased as drought severity increased. There were bursts of CO2 emission when dry soils were rewetted by rainfall after the dry season. Unlike most other exponential relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature, a parabolic function was observed in all treatments (P < 0.05), which was due to higher soil temperature (>28 °C) coinciding with insufficient soil water content (<11% Vol). Respiration rate is best represented by a model which combines soil moisture and temperature.

Conclusion

Soil respiration rates were significantly decreased as drought enhanced. The response of soil respiration to drought in the dry season should not be ignored especially when evaluating the effect of drought on soil respiration in a whole year in savanna ecosystems. The quadratic relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature may be important for modeling the response of soil respiration to climate change (drought) in savanna ecosystems.

Keywords

Drought Savanna Soil respiration Precipitation exclusion Climate change 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41405143), the Yunnan Province Natural Science Foundation (2015FB186, 2017FB077), the Joint Foundation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Natural Science Foundation of Yunnan Province (U1602234, U1202234), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0502105), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31290220), the CAS 135 project (2017XTBG-F01, 2017XTBG-T01), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31600390). This work was also supported by the Yuanjiang Savanna Ecosystem Research Station of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of CAS and the Public Technology Service Center of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of CAS.

Supplementary material

11104_2018_3678_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2374 kb)

References

  1. Arruda PHZD, Vourlitis GL, Santanna FB, Jr OBP, Lobo FDA, Nogueira JDS (2016) Large net CO2 loss from a grass-dominated tropical savanna in south-central Brazil in response to seasonal and interannual drought. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 121:2110–2124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahn M, Rodeghiero M, Anderson-Dunn M, Dore S, Gimeno C, Drösler M, Williams M, Ammann C, Berninger F, Flechard C, Jones S, Balzarolo M, Kumar S, Newesely C, Priwitzer T, Raschi A, Siegwolf R, Susiluoto S, Tenhunen J, Wohlfahrt G, Cernusca A (2008) Soil Respiration in European Grasslands in Relation to Climate and Assimilate Supply. Ecosystems 11:1352–1367CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bei RT, Luo YY, Lu M (2009) Soils and their conservation in Yuanjiang Nature Reserve. Guangxi Forestry Sci 38:87–91 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. Beringer J, Hutley LB, Tapper NJ, Cernusak LA (2007) Savanna fires and their impact on net ecosystem productivity in North Australia. Glob Change Biol 13:990–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borken W, Savage K, Davidson EA, Trumbore SE (2006) Effects of experimental drought on soil respiration and radiocarbon efflux from a temperate forest soil. Glob Chang Biol 12:177–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourlière F, Hadley M (1983) Present-day savannas: an overview. In: Bourlière F (ed) Tropical savannas. Ecosystems of the world, vol 13. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  7. Bridge BJ, Mott JJ, Hartigan RJ (1983) The formation of degraded areas in the dry savanna woodlands of northern Australia. Aust J Soil Res 21:91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butler A, Meir P, Saiz G, Maracahipes L, Marimon BS, Grace J (2012) Annual variation in soil respiration and its component parts in two structurally contrasting woody savannas in Central Brazil. Plant Soil 352:129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chacon N, Silver WL, Dubinsky EA, Cusack DF (2006) Iron reduction and soil phosphorus solubilization in humid tropical forests soils: The roles of labile carbon pools and an electron shuttle compound. Biogeochemistry 78(1):67–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen XY, Hutley LB, Eamus D (2003) Carbon balance of a tropical savanna of northern Australia. Oecologia 137:405–416CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng XB, Wu J, Han SJ, Wu YM, Wang XX, Wang CG, Sui X, Yan CF (2011) Effects of decreased rainfall on Quercus mongolica leaf eco-physiological characteristics. Chinese J Ecol 30:1908–1914 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. China Meteorological Data Service Centre (2016) Dataset of daily climate data from chinese surface stations for global exchange. http://data.cma.cn/en/?r=data/detail&dataCode=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY_CES. Accessed 26 July 2016
  13. Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogée J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Chr B, Carrara A, Chevallier F, De Noblet N, Friend AD, Friedlingstein P, Grünwald T, Heinesch B, Keronen P, Knohl A, Krinner G, Loustau D, Manca G, Matteucci G, Miglietta F, Ourcival JM, Papale D, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Seufert G, Soussana JF, Sanz MJ, Schulze ED, Vesala T, Valentini R (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437:529–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cleveland CC, Wieder WR, Reed SC, Townsend AR (2010) Experimental drought in a tropical rain forest increases soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere. Ecology 91:2313–2323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cox PM, Betts RA, Jones CD, Spall SA, Totterdell IJ (2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408:184–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dai A (2013) Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Nat Clim Chang 3:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dai AG, Trenberth KE, Qian TT (2004) A global data set of Palmer Drought Severity Index for 1870-2002: relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J Hydrometeorol 5:1117–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson EA, Ishida FY, Nepstad DC (2004) Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest. Glob Chang Biol 10:718–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson EA, Nepstad DC, Ishida FY, Brando PM (2008) Effects of an experimental drought and recovery on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest. Glob Chang Biol 14:2582–2590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davidson EA, Samanta S, Caramori S, Savage K (2012) The Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten kinetics model for decomposition of soil organic matter at hourly to seasonal time scales. Glob Chang Biol 18:371–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Domínguez MT, Sowerby A, Smith AR, Robinson DA, Baarsel SV, Mills RTE, Marshall MR, Koller E, Lebron I, Hall J, Emmett BA (2015) Sustained impact of drought on wet shrublands mediated by soil physical changes. Biogeochemistry 122:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Domínguez MT, Holthof E, Smith AR, Koller E, Emmett B (2017) Contrasting response of summer soil respiration and enzyme activities to long-term warming and drought in a wet shrubland (NE Wales, UK). Appl Soil Ecol 110:151–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fan ZS, Neff JC, Hanan NP (2015) Modeling pulsed soil respiration in an African savanna ecosystem. Agric For Meteorol 200:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fei XH, Jin YQ, Zhang YP, Sha LQ, Liu YT, Song QH, Zhou WJ, Liang NS, Yu GR, Zhang LM, Zhou RW, Li J, Zhang SB, Li PG (2017) Eddy covariance and biometric measurements show that a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China is a carbon sink. Sci Rep 7:41025.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41025 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Fisher RA, Williams M, da Costa AL, Malhi Y, da Costa RF, Almeida S, Meir P (2007) The response of an Eastern Amazonian rain forest to drought stress: results and modelling analyses from a throughfall exclusion experiment. Glob Change Biol 13:2361–2378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Freeman C, Liskam G, Ostle NJ, Lock MA, Reynolds B, Hudson J (1996) Microbial activity and enzymatic decomposition processes following peatland water table drawdown. Plant Soil 180:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goulden ML, Munger JM, Fan SM, Daube BC, Wofsy SC (1996) Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: response to interannual climate variability. Science 271:1576–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grace J, José JS, Meir P, Miranda HS, Montes RA (2006) Productivity and carbon fluxes of tropical savannas. J Biogeogr 33:387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gupta SR, Singh JS (1981) Soil respiration in a tropical grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 13:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hagedorn F, Joos O (2014) Experimental summer drought reduces soil CO2 effluxes and DOC leaching in Swiss grassland soils along an elevational gradient. Biogeochemistry 117:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hinko-Najera N, Fest B, Livesley SJ, Arndt SK (2015) Reduced throughfall decreases autotrophic respiration, but not heterotrophic respiration in a dry temperate broad leaved evergreen forest. Agric For Meteorol 200:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Holt JA, Hodgen MJ, Lamb D (1990) Soil respiration in the seasonally dry topics near Townsville, North Queensland. Aust J Soil Res 28:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoover DL, Rogers BM (2016) Not all droughts are created equal: the impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling. Glob Change Biol 22:1809–1820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoover DL, Knapp AK, Smith MD (2016) The immediate and prolonged effects of climate extremes on soil respiration in a mesic grassland. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 121:1034–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Inoue T, Koizumi H (2012) Effects of environmental factors upon variation in soil respiration of a Zoysia japonica grassland, central Japan. Ecol Res 27:445–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jensen K, Beier C, Michelsen A, Emmett BA (2003) Effects of experimental drought on microbial processes in two temperate heathlands at contrasting water conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 24:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jiang H, Deng Q, Zhou G, Hui D, Zhang D, Liu S, Chu G, Li J (2013) Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China. Biogeosciences 10:3963–3982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones CD, Cox P, Huntingford C (2003) Uncertainty in climatecarbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. Tellus Ser B Chem Phys Meteorol 55:642–648Google Scholar
  39. Kirtman B, Power SB, Adedoyin JA, Boer GJ, Bojariu R, Camilloni I, Doblas-Reyes FJ, Fiore AM, Kimoto M, Meehl GA, Prather M, Sarr A, Schär C, Sutton R, van Oldenborgh GJ, Vecchi G, Wang HJ (2013) Near-term climate change: projections and predictability. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 953–1028Google Scholar
  40. Kopittke GR, Tietema A, van Loon EE, Asscheman D (2014) Fourteen Annually Repeated Droughts Suppressed Autotrophic Soil Respiration and Resulted in an Ecosystem Change. Ecosystems 17:242–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lai LM, Wang JJ, Tian Y, Zhao XC, Jiang LH, Chen X, Gao Y, Wang SM, Zheng YR (2013) Organic Matter and Water Addition Enhance Soil Respiration in an Arid Region. PLoS One 8:e77659.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077659 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Lehmann CER, Anderson TM, Sankaran M, Higgins SI, Archibald S, Hoffmann WA, Hanan NP, Williams RJ, Fensham RJ, Felfili J, Hutley LB, Ratnam J, Jose JS, Montes R, Franklin D, Russell-Smith J, Ryan CM, Durigan G, Hiernaux P, Haidar R, Bowman DMJS, Bond WJ (2014) Savanna vegetation-fire-climate relationships differ among continents. Science 343:548–552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Li Q, Chen J, Moorhead DL (2012) Respiratory carbon losses in a managed oak forest ecosystem. For Ecol Manag 279:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Li YY, Zhou GY, Huang WJ, Liu JX, Fang X (2016) Potential effects of warming on soil respiration and carbon sequestration in a subtropical forest. Plant Soil 409:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Linn D, Doran J (1984) Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and nontilled soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:1267–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu YT, Li YE, Wan YF, Chen DL, Gao QZ, Li Y, Qin XB (2011) Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated and fertilized spring maize in semi-arid northern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 141:287–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu T, Xu ZZ, Hou YH, Zhou GS (2016) Effects of warming and changing precipitation rates on soil respiration over two years in a desert steppe of northern China. Plant Soil 400:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Livesley SJ, Grover S, Hutley LB, Jamali H, Butterbach-Bahld K, Fest B, Beringer J, Arndt SK (2011) Seasonal variation and fire effects on CH4, N2O and CO2 exchange in savanna soils of northern Australia. Agric For Meteorol 151:1440–1452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lloyd J. Taylor J A (1994) On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Funct Ecol 8:315–323Google Scholar
  50. Major J, Lehmann J, Rondon M, Goodale C (2010) Fate of soil-applied black carbon: downward migration, leaching and soil respiration. Glob Chang Biol 16:1366–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mcculley RL, Boutton TW, Archer SR (2007) Soil respiration in a subtropical savanna parkland: response to water additions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:820–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Millard P, Midwood AJ, Hunt JE, Whitehead D, Boutton TW (2008) Partitioning soil surface CO2 efflux into autotrophic and heterotrophic components, using natural gradients in soil δ13C in an undisturbed savannah soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1575–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moyano FE, Manzoni S, Chenu C (2013) Responses of soil heterotrophic respiration to moisture availability: An exploration of processes and models. Soil Biol Biochem 59:72–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nepstad DC, Tohver IM, Ray D, Moutinho P, Cardinot G (2007) Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest. Ecology 88:2259–2269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nouvellon Y, Epron D, Kinana A, Hamel O, Mabiala A, Annunzio RD, Deleporte P, Saint-Andréa L, Marsden C, Roupsard O, Bouillet JP, Laclau JP (2008) Soil CO2 effluxes, soil carbon balance, and early tree growth following savannah afforestation in Congo: Comparison of two site preparation treatments. Forest Ecol Manag 255:1926–1936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nouvellon Y, Epron D, Marsden C, Kinana A, Maire GL, Deleporte P, Saint-André L, Bouillet JP, Laclau JP (2012) Age-related changes in litter inputs explain annual trends in soil CO2 effluxes over a full Eucalyptus rotation after afforestation of a tropical savannah. Biogeochemistry 111:515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pinto ADS, Bustamante MMC, Kisselle K, Burke R, Zepp R, Viana LT, Varella RF, Molina M (2002) Soil emissions of N2O, NO, and CO2 in Brazilian Savannas: Effects of vegetation type, seasonality, and prescribed fires. J Geophys Res 107:8089.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000342 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Poulter B, Frank D, Ciais P, Myneni RB, Andela N, Bi J, Broquet G, Canadell JG, Chevallier F, Liu YY, Running SW, Sitch S, van der Werf GR (2014) Contribution of semi-arid ecosystems to interannual variability of the global carbon cycle. Nature 509:600–603Google Scholar
  59. Quansah E, Mauder M, Balogun AA, Amekudzi LK, Hingerl L, Jan Bliefernicht J, Kunstmann H (2015) Carbon dioxide fluxes from contrasting ecosystems in the Sudanian Savanna in West Africa. Carbon Balance Manage 10(1).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-014-0011-4
  60. Reddy KR, DeLaune RD (2008) Biogeochemistry of Wetlands. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rey A, Pegoraro E, Oyonarte C, Were A, Escribano P, Raimundo J (2011) Impact of land degradation on soil respiration in a steppe (Stipa tenacissima L.) semi-arid ecosystem in the SE of Spain. Soil Biol Biochem 43:393–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Richards AE, Dathe JF, Cook GD (2012) Fire interacts with season to influence soil respiration in tropical savannas. Soil Biol Biochem 53:90–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rowland L, da Costa ACL, Galbraith DR, Oliveira RS, Binks OJ, Oliveira AAR, Pullen AM, Doughty CE, Metcalfe DB, Vasconcelos SS, Ferreira LV, Malhi Y, Grace J, Mencuccini M, Meir P (2015) Death from drought in tropical forests is triggered by hydraulics not carbon starvation. Nature 528:119–122Google Scholar
  64. San José J, Montes R, Grace J, Nikonova N (2008) Land-use changes alter CO2 flux patterns of a tall-grass Andropogon field and a savanna–woodland continuum in the Orinoco lowlands. Tree Physiol 28:437–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sanhueza E, Santana M (1994) CO2 emissions from tropical savanna soil under first year of cultivation. Interciencia 19:20–23Google Scholar
  66. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001) Interannual variation of soil respiration in two New England forests. Global Biogeochem Cy 15:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Schimel J, Balser TC, Wallenstein M (2007) Microbial stressresponse physiology and its implications for ecosystem function. Ecology 88:1386–1394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, Baldocchi D, Black TA, Goldstein AH, Law BE, Oechel WC, Paw UKT, Scott RL (2012) Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America. Nat Geosci 5:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schwendenmann L, Veldkamp E, Brenes T, Brien JJO, Mackensen J (2003) Spatial and temporal variation in soil CO2 efflux in an old-growth neotropical rain forest, La Selva, Costa Rica. Biogeochemistry 64:111–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shi Z, Thomey ML, Mowll W, Litvak M, Brunsell NA, Collins SL, Pockman WT, Smith MD, Knapp AK, Luo Y (2014) Differential effects of extreme drought on production and respiration: synthesis and modeling analysis. Biogeosciences 11:621–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sotta ED, Veldkamp E, Schwendenmann L, Guimãraes BR, Paixão RK, Ruivo MDLP, da Costa ACL, Meir P (2007) Effects of an induced drought on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and soil CO2 production in an Eastern Amazonian rainforest, Brazil. Glob Chang Biol 13:2218–2229Google Scholar
  72. Sowerby A, Emmett BA, Tietema A, Beier C (2008) Contrasting effects of repeated summer drought on soil carbon efflux in hydric and mesic heathland soils. Glob Change Biol 14:2388–2404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sponseller RA (2007) Precipitation pulses and soil CO2 flux in a Sonoran Desert ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 13:426–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sun QQ, Meyer WS, Koerber GR, Marschner P (2016) A wildfire event influences ecosystem carbon fluxes but not soil respiration in a semi-arid woodland. Agric For Meteorol 226-227:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tagesson T, Fensholt R, Cropley F, Guiro I, Horion S, Ehammer A, Ardö J (2015) Dynamics in carbon exchange fluxes for a grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 205:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Talmon Y, Sternberg M, Grünzweig JM (2011) Impact of rainfall manipulations and biotic controls on soil respiration in Mediterranean and desert ecosystems along an aridity gradient. Glob Change Biol 17:1108–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tang JW, Baldocchi DD (2005) Spatial–temporal variation in soil respiration in an oak-grass savanna ecosystem in California and its partitioning into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Biogeochemistry 73:183–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thomas AD, Hoon SR, Dougill AJ (2011) Soil respiration at five sites along the Kalahari Transect: Effects of temperature, precipitation pulses and biological soil crust cover. Geoderma 167-168:284–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trenberth KE, Dai A, Schrier GVD, Jones PD, Barichivich J, Briffa KR, Sheffield J (2014) Global warming and changes in drought. Nat Clim Chang 4:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Unger S, Máguas C, Pereira JS, Aires LM, David TS, Werner C (2009) Partitioning carbon fluxes in a Mediterranean oak forest to disentangle changes in ecosystem sink strength during drought. Agric For Meteorol 149:949–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Upadhyaya SD, Siddiqui SA, Singh VP (1981) Seasonal variation in soil respiration of certain tropical grassland communities. Trop Ecol 22:157–161Google Scholar
  82. van Straaten O, Veldkamp E, Corre MD (2011) Simulated drought reduces soil CO2 efflux and production in a tropical forest in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecosphere 2:119.  https://doi.org/10.1890/ES11-00079.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vicca S, Bahn M, Estiarte M, van Loon EE, Vargas R, Alberti G, Ambus P, Arain M a, Beier C, Bentley LP, Borken W, Buchmann N, Collins SL, de Dato G, Dukes JS, Escolar C, Fay P, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Kahmen A, Kröel-Dulay G, Ladreiter-Knauss T, Larsen KS, Lellei-Kovacs E, Lebrija-Trejos E, Maestre FT, Marhan S, Marshall M, Meir P, Miao Y, Muhr J, Niklaus PA, Ogaya R, Peñuelas J, Poll C, Rustad LE, Savage K, Schindlbacher A, Schmidt IK, Smith AR, Sotta ED, Suseela V, Tietema A, van Gestel N, van Straaten O, Wan S, Weber U, Janssens IA (2014) Can current moisture responses predict soil CO2 efflux under altered precipitation regimes? A synthesis of manipulation experiments. Biogeosciences 11:2991–3013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Williams MA, Rice CW (2007) Seven years of enhanced water availability influences the physiological, structural, and functional attributes of a soil microbial community. Appl Soil Ecol 35:535–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wood TE, Silver WL (2012) Strong spatial variability in trace gasdynamics following experimental drought in a humid tropical forest. Global Biogeochem Cy 26:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wu ZT, Dijkstra P, Koch GW, Peñuelas J, Hungate BA (2011) Responses of terrestrial ecosystems to temperature and precipitation change: a meta-analysis of experimental manipulation. Glob Chang Biol 17:927–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Yu WJ, Shao MY, Ren ML, Zhou HJ, Jiang ZH, Li DL (2013) Analysis on spatial and temporal characteristics drought of Yunnan Province. Acta Ecol Sin 33:317–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Yuste JC, Baldocchi DD, Gershenson A, Goldstein A, Misson L, Wong S (2007) Microbial soil respiration and its dependency on carbon inputs, soil temperature and moisture. Glob Chang Biol 13:2018–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhang JM (1958) Physical properties of several types of soil in central and southern of Yunnan Porvince. Chinese J Soil Sci 5:35–44 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  90. Zhang L, Wylie BK, Ji L, Gilmanov TG, Tieszen LL (2010) Climate-driven interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange in the northern Great Plains grasslands. Rangeland Ecol Manag 63:40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang X, Zhang YP, Sha LQ, Wu CS, Tan ZH, Song QH, Liu YT, Dong LY (2015) Effects of continuous drought stress on soil respiration in a tropical rain forest in southwest China. Plant Soil 394:343–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhang SB, Zhang JL, Cao KF (2016) Differences in the photosynthetic efficiency and photorespiration of co-occurring Euphorbiaceae liana and tree in a Chinese savanna. Photosynthetica 54:438–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zheng XH, Mei BL, Wang YH, Xie BH, Wang YS, Dong HB, Xu H, Chen GX, Cai ZC, Yue J, Gu JX, Su F, Zou JW, Zhu JG (2008) Quantification of N2O fluxes from soil–plant systems may be biased by the applied gas chromatograph methodology. Plant Soil 311:211–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhou LF (1983) Characteristics and zonality of soil distribution in Yunnan Province. Mt Res 4:33–40 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  95. Zhou XH, Xiao ZN (2014) Climate projection over Yunnan Province and the surrounding regions based on CMIP5 data. Climatic Environ Res 19:601–613 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  96. Zhou WJ, Ji HL, Zhu J, Zhang YP, Sha LQ, Liu YT, Zhang X, Zhao W, Dong YX, Bai XL, Lin YX, Zhang JH, Zheng XH (2016) The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation. Sci Rep 6:28230.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep28230 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesMenglaChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of GeoSciencesUniversity of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  4. 4.Yuanjiang Savanna Ecosystem Research Station, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesYuanjiangChina
  5. 5.Yellow River Delta Ecological Research Station of Coastal Wetland, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesYantaiChina

Personalised recommendations