Plant and Soil

, Volume 427, Issue 1–2, pp 281–290 | Cite as

Within population variation in germination response to smoke cues: convergent recruitment strategies and different dormancy types

  • Hongyuan Ma
  • Haitao Wu
  • Mark K. J. OoiEmail author
Regular Article



Maintaining variation in germination response provides a selective advantage, by spreading risk during recruitment. In fire-prone regions, physically dormant (PY) species vary their response to dormancy-breaking fire-related heat cues at the intra-population level. However little is known about physiologically dormant (PD) species, which respond to smoke cues. These contrasting dormancy types reflect different evolutionary developmental pathways and we considered whether intra-population variation in germination of Boronia floribunda (PD) occurs in response to smoke.


Seeds were collected from individual plants. We assessed germination magnitude and rate of seeds from each individual in response to a single aerosol smoke treatment, and three concentrations of smoke water, using replicate seed lots in temperature-controlled incubators.


The magnitude and onset of germination differed significantly among individuals in response to the same smoke treatment. Seeds from different individuals varied in their sensitivity to smoke water concentration, with some responding to very low doses, and others obligated to high doses.


Variation in germination response to smoke highlights a mechanism by which PD species spread risk, by allowing some seeds to emerge quickly, while others remain dormant in the soil seed bank. The similarity to heat-cued variation displayed by PY species suggests that this could represent a convergent functional response.


Convergent evolution Fire Physiological dormancy Rutaceae Smoke Soil seed bank 



This work was supported by the the National Basic Research Program of China [2015CB150802 to H.M.], National Natural Science Foundation of China [41371260 to H.M.], the National Key R & D Program of China [2017YFC0505901 to H.W. and 2016YFC0501206 to H.M.] and funding from a NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Tender [ENV1381 to M.K.J.O.] entitled ‘Fire and threatened species management’. Hongyuan Ma was given a K.C. Wong Education Foundation ‘Excellent Woman Scientist of the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ award to visit Mark Ooi’s laboratory. Mark Ooi is part of the Threatened Species Recovery Hub (Project 1.3) based at UNSW, which is supported by the Australian Government’s National Environment Science Program (NESP) (

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeast Institute of Geography and AgroecologyChinese Academy of SciencesJilinChina
  2. 2.Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Institute for Conservation Biology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

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