Plant and Soil

, Volume 418, Issue 1–2, pp 231–240 | Cite as

Nitrogen resorption in senescing leaf blades of rice exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) under different N fertilization levels

  • Shimpei OikawaEmail author
  • Hitomi Ehara
  • Mika Koyama
  • Tadaki Hirose
  • Kouki Hikosaka
  • Charles P. Chen
  • Hirofumi Nakamura
  • Hidemitsu Sakai
  • Takeshi Tokida
  • Yasuhiro Usui
  • Toshihiro Hasegawa
Regular Article



Nitrogen (N) resorption from senescing leaves is essential to meet N demand for grain development in rice (Oryza sativa L.). We asked whether rice is capable of reducing N in their senesced leaf blade to lower concentration at elevated [CO2] more in low than in high N fertilization.


The effects of elevated [CO2] and N fertilization on senesced leaf N concentration were examined for 3 years with the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology.


Elevated [CO2] decreased the senesced leaf N concentration but the change was generally small and did not hold over the growing seasons. Additionally, there was no evidence that the change was greater at low than at high N fertilization levels.


The 3-year field measurements showed that elevated [CO2] did not change the senesced leaf N concentration consistently. The occasional decrease in senesced leaf N concentration was associated with a decrease in green leaf N concentration at elevated [CO2] but not with the proportion of leaf N resorbed during leaf senescence.


Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration Global change Leaf senescence Litter production Litter quality Nitrogen retranslocation 



We gratefully acknowledge the staff members of NIAES for their support in operating and maintaining the Tsukubamirai FACE experimental facility. Kazuki Nakamura, Takahiro Ogawa and the other members of TUA provided assistance with sampling at the field. We also thank Kentaro Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Miyazawa and Toshihiko Kinugasa for comments. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan, through a research project entitled “Development of Technologies for Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries”, in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (no. 21114009, 24114711) by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, as part of the project entitled, “Comprehensive Studies of Plant Responses to a High CO2 World by an Innovative Consortium of Ecologists and Molecular Biologists.”

Author contributions

SO and THi designed the research. HN and THa operated and managed the FACE experimental facility. SO, HE, MK, CPC, THa, HS, YU and TT conducted fieldwork. Laboratory work was carried out by SO, HE and MK. SO analyzed data and drafted the manuscript. THi, KH, TT, CPC, YU and THa contributed to manuscript revisions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11104_2017_3280_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (69 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 68 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shimpei Oikawa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hitomi Ehara
    • 2
  • Mika Koyama
    • 2
  • Tadaki Hirose
    • 2
  • Kouki Hikosaka
    • 3
    • 4
  • Charles P. Chen
    • 5
    • 6
  • Hirofumi Nakamura
    • 7
  • Hidemitsu Sakai
    • 5
  • Takeshi Tokida
    • 8
  • Yasuhiro Usui
    • 5
    • 9
  • Toshihiro Hasegawa
    • 5
    • 10
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science and Engineering/Institute for Global Change Adaptation ScienceIbaraki UniversityIbarakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of International Agricultural DevelopmentTokyo University of AgricultureTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  4. 4.CREST, JSTTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Division of Climate Change, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)Institute for Agro-Environmental ScienceIbarakiJapan
  6. 6.Department of Biology and ChemistryAzusa Pacific UniversityAzusaUSA
  7. 7.Taiyo Keiki Co., Ltd.TokyoJapan
  8. 8.IbarakiJapan
  9. 9.Hokkaido Agricultural Research CenterNAROKasaiJapan
  10. 10.Tohoku Agricultural Research CenterNAROIwateJapan

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