Increasing acidity of rain in subtropical tea plantation alters aluminum and nutrient distributions at the root-soil interface and in plant tissues
Background and aims
Acid rain alters aluminum (Al) and nutrient cycling in tea (Camellia sinensis) plantations. However, the underlying mechanisms of the interaction among Al, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in response to increasing acidity of rain remain unclear.
A typical tea plantation was selected for an experimental treatment by pH 4.5, 3.5, and 2.5 acid rains and control in southern China. After 3 years, rhizosphere and bulk soils were collected to analyze extractable Al fractions and available nutrients. Roots, stems, young and old twigs, tea and mature leaves were sampled to measure total Al, total N and P concentrations.
Extractable Al fractions in rhizosphere soils generally increased with increasing rain acidity until pH 3.5 and dropped treated by pH 2.5 acid rain. In contrast, NO3 −-N, mineral N and available P in rhizosphere soils monotonically decreased with increasing acidity. Average total Al and total P in plant tissues, respectively increased and decreased with increasing acidity. Soluble sugar in tea leaves was directly and inversely related to Al/N and N/P, respectively. Free amino acids were inversely related to Al/P.
Prolonged elevation of rain acidity altered Al and nutrient stoichiometry in rhizosphere soils and plant tissues, and severe acid rain decreased tea quality.
KeywordsAboveground-belowground linkage Aluminum Camellia sinensis Rhizosphere Simulated acid rain Stoichiometry
This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31560152, 31260199 and 31060081). We greatly appreciate Jing Li and Xi Chen for their help in field sampling and sample analysis.
- Allen SE (1989) Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials, 2nd. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Chen X, Chen F-S, Ye S-Q, Yu S-Q, Fang X-M, Hu X-F (2015b) Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation. Chin J Appl Ecol 26:1–8Google Scholar
- Duan X, Hu X, Chen F, Deng Z (2012) Bioactive ingredient levels of tea leaves are associated with leaf Al level interactively influenced by acid rain intensity and soil Al supply. J Food Agric Environ 10:1197–1204Google Scholar
- Larssen T, Lydersen E, Tang DG, He Y, Gao JX, Liu HY, Duan L, Seip HM, Vogt RD, Mulder J, Shao M, Wang YH, Shang H, Zhang XS, Solberg S, Aas W, Okland T, Eilertsen O, Angell V, Liu QR, Zhao DW, Xiang RJ, Xiao JS, Luo JH (2006b) Acid rain in China. Environ Sci Technol 40:418–425. doi: 10.1021/es0626133 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Hu X, Duan X, Huang Y, Liu Y, Chen F (2012) Effects of planting year on soil and plant nutrients in hilly tea gardens. Acta Agric Univers Jiangxi 34:1186–1192Google Scholar
- Liu Y, Hu X-F, Chen F-S, Pu-ci Y (2013) Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes from rhizosphere soil mineralization and root decomposition in Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests. Chi J Appl Ecol 24:1501–1508Google Scholar
- Pandey J, Pandey U, Singh AV (2014) The skewed N: P stoichiometry resulting from changing atmospheric deposition chemistry drives the pattern of ecological nutrient limitation in the Ganges. Curr Sci 107:956–958Google Scholar
- Qiu Q, Wu J, Liang G, Liu J, Chu G, Zhou G, Zhang D (2015) Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China. Environ Monit Assess 187. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4492-8
- SPSS I (2007) SPSS for Windows (16.0). SPSS Inc, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Xue D, Yao H, Huang C (2005) Study on soil microbial properties and enzyme activities in tea gardens. J Soil Water Conserv 19:84–87Google Scholar
- Yang T, Li H, Xiaofei H, Li LJ, Hu J, Rong L, Ze-Yuan D (2014) Effects of fertilizing with N, P, Se, and Zn on regulating the element and functional component contents and antioxidant activity of tea leaves planted in red soil. J Agric Food Chem 62:3823–3830. doi: 10.1021/jf5004286 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar