Plant and Soil

, Volume 416, Issue 1–2, pp 67–82 | Cite as

Macropore effects on phosphorus acquisition by wheat roots – a rhizotron study

  • S. L. Bauke
  • M. Landl
  • M. Koch
  • D. Hofmann
  • K. A. Nagel
  • N. Siebers
  • A. Schnepf
  • W. Amelung
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Macropores may be preferential root pathways into the subsoil. We hypothesised that the presence of macropores promotes P-uptake from subsoil, particularly at limited water supply in surface soil. We tested this hypothesis in a rhizotron experiment with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Scirocco) under variation of fertilisation and irrigation.

Methods

Rhizotrons were filled with compacted subsoil (bulk density 1.4 g cm−3), underneath a P-depleted topsoil. In half of these rhizotrons the subsoil contained artificial macropores. Spring wheat was grown for 41 days with and without irrigation and 31P–addition. Also, a 33P–tracer was added at the soil surface to trace P-distribution in plants using liquid scintillation counting and radioactive imaging.

Results

Fertilisation and irrigation promoted biomass production and plant P-uptake. Improved growing conditions resulted in a higher proportion of subsoil roots, indicating that the topsoil root system additionally promoted subsoil nutrient acquisition. The presence of macropores did not improve plant growth but tended to increase translocation of 33P into both above- and belowground biomass. 33P–imaging confirmed that this plant-internal transport of topsoil-P extended into subsoil roots.

Conclusions

The lack of penetration resistance in macropores did not increase plant growth and nutrient uptake from subsoil here; however, wheat specifically re-allocated topsoil-P for subsoil root growth.

Keywords

Macropores 33P–imaging P-uptake Rhizotrons Subsoil Wheat 

Supplementary material

11104_2017_3194_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (450 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 450 kb)

References

  1. Athmann M, Kautz T, Pude R, Köpke U (2013) Root growth in biopores - evaluation with in situ endoscopy. Plant Soil 371:179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barej JAM, Pätzold S, Perkons U, Amelung W (2014) Phosphorus fractions in bulk subsoil and its biopore systems. Eur J Soil Sci 65:553–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bollons HM, Barraclough PB (1999) Assessing the phosphorus status of winter wheat crops: inorganic orthophosphate in whole shoots. J Agric Sci 133:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boyer JS, Silk WK, Watt M (2010) Path of water for root growth. Funct Plant Biol 37:1105–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cordell D, Drangert J-O, White S (2009) The story of phosphorus. Glob Environ Chang 19:292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dexter AR (1986) Model experiments on the behaviour of roots of the interface between a tilled seed-bed and a compacted sub-soil. III. Entry of pea and wheat roots into cylindrical biopores. Plant Soil 95:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dunbabin VM, Armstrong RD, Officer SJ, Norton RM (2009) Identifying fertiliser management strategies to maximise nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition by wheat in two contrasting soils from Victoria, Australia. Aust J Soil Res 47:74–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DWD (2016) Niederschlag: langjährige Mittelwerte 1981-2010 aktueller Standort. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Offenbach Available online https://wwwdwdde/DE/leistungen/ klimadatendeutschland/mittelwerte/nieder_8110_akt_htmlhtml;jsessionid=4A2F1E5AE73ED95FD0C6A7908C88D94Dlive21061?view=nasPublication&nn=1610 Last access 8 March 2016
  9. Ericsson T (1995) Growth and shoot: root ratio of seedlings in relation to nutrient availability. Plant Soil 168-169:205–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fleige H, Grimme H, Renger M, Strebel O (1983) Zur Erfassung der Nährstoffanlieferung durch Diffusion im effektiven Wurzelraum. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft 38:381–386Google Scholar
  11. Foster JC (1995) Soil sampling, handling, storage and analysis. In: Alef K, Nannipieri P (eds) Methods on applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 49–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frossard E, Achat DL, Bernasconi SM, Bünemann EK, Fardeau J-C, Jansa J, Morel C, Rabeharisoa L, Randriamanantsoa L, Sinaj S, Tamburini F, Oberson A (2011) The use of tracers to investigate phosphate cycling in soil-plant systems. In: Bünemann EK, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action, soil biology 26. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 59–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gaiser T, Perkons U, Küpper PM, Kautz T, Uteau-Puschmann D, Ewert F, Enders A, Krauss G (2013) Modelling biopores effects on root growth and biomass production on soils with pronounced sub-soil clay accumulation. Ecol Model 256:6–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Göttlein A, Heim A, Matzner E (1999) Mobilization of aluminium in the rhizosphere soil solution of growing tree roots in an acidic soil. Plant Soil 211:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Han E, Kautz T, Perkons U, Uteau D, Peth S, Huang N, Horn R, Köpke U (2015) Root growth dynamics inside and outside of soil biopores as affected by crop sequence determined with the profile wall method. Biol Fertil Soils 51:847–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Han E, Kautz T, Köpke U (2016) Precrop root system determines root diameter of subsequent crop. Biol Fertil Soils 52:113–118Google Scholar
  17. Heckenmüller M, Narita D, Klepper G (2014) Global availability of phosphorus and its implications for global food supply: An Economic Overview. Working papers No. 1897, Kiel institute for the world economy, KielGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho MD, Rosas JC, Brown KM, Lynch JP (2005) Root architectural tradeoffs for water and phosphorus acquisition. Funct Plant Biol 32:737–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hüve K, Merbach W, Remus R, Lüttschwager D, Wittenmayer L, Hertel K, Schurr U (2007) Transport of phosphorus in leaf veins of Vicia faba L. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson MG, Tingey DT, Phillips DL, Storm MJ (2001) Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons. Environ Exp Bot 45:263–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kautz T (2014) Research on subsoil biopores and their functions in organically managed soils: a review. Renew Agr Food Syst 30:318–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kautz T, Amelung W, Ewert F, Gaiser T, Horn R, Jahn R, Javaux M, Kemna A, Kuzyakov Y, Munch J-C, Pätzold S, Peth S, Scherer HW, Schloter M, Schneider H, Vanderborght J, Vetterlein D, Walter A, Wiesenberg GL, Köpke U (2013a) Nutrient acquisition from arable subsoils in temperate climates. Soil Biol Biochem 57:1003–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kautz T, Perkons U, Athmann M, Pude R, Köpke U (2013b) Barley roots are not constrained to large-sized biopores in the subsoil of a deep Haplic Luvisol. Biol Fertil Soils 49:959–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kuczak CN, Fernandes ECM, Lehmann J, Rondon MA, Luizão FJ (2006) Inorganic and organic phosphorus pools in earthworm casts (Glossoscolecidae) and a Brazilian rainforest Oxisol. Soil Biol and Bioch 38:553–560Google Scholar
  25. Kuhlmann H, Baumgärtel G (1991) Potential importance of the subsoil for the P and Mg nutrition of wheat. Plant Soil 137:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leitner D, Felderer B, Vontobel P, Schnepf A (2014) Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine. Plant Physiol 164:24–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lynch JP, Brown KM (2001) Topsoil foraging - an architectural adaptation of plants to low phosphorus availability. Plant Soil 237:225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manschadi AM, Christopher J, deVoil P, Hammer GL (2006) The role of root architectural traits in adaptation of wheat to water-limited environments. Funct Plant Biol 33:823–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McBeath TM, McLaughlin MJ, Kirby JK, Armstrong RD (2012) The effect of soil water status on fertiliser, topsoil and subsoil phosphorus utilisation by wheat. Plant Soil 358:337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKenzie BM, Bengough AG, Hallett PD, Thomas W, Forster B, McNicol JW (2009) Deep rooting and drought screening of cereal crops: a novel field-based method and its application. Field Crop Res 112:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McLean M, Howell GS, Smucker AJM (1992) A Minirhizotron system for in situ root observation studies of Seyval grapevines. Am J Enol Vitic 43:87–89Google Scholar
  32. Mertens FM, Pätzold S, Welp G (2008) Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties and its mapping with apparent electrical conductivity. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified sinlge solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nagel KA, Putz A, Gilmer F, Heinz K, Fischbach A, Pfeifer J, Faget M, Blossfeld S, Ernst M, Dimaki C, Kastenholz B, Kleinert A-K, Galinski A, Scharr H, Fiorani F, Schurr U (2012) GROWSCREEN-Rhizo is a novel phenotyping robot enabling simultaneous measurements of root and shoot growth for plants grown in soil-filled rhizotrons. Funct Plant Biol 39:891–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nagel KA, Bonnett D, Furbank R, Walter A, Schurr U, Watt M (2015) Simultaneous effects of leaf irradiance and soil moisture on growth and root system architecture of novel wheat genotypes: implications for phenotyping. J Exp Bot 66:5441–5452CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Nemes A, Wösten JHM, Lilly A, Oude Voshaar JH (1999) Evaluation of different procedures to interpolate particle-size distribution to achieve compatibility within soil data bases. Geoderma 90:187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Obersteiner M, Peñuelas J, Ciais P, van der Velde M, Janssens IA (2013) The phosphorus trilemma. Nat Geosci 6:897–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pankhurst CE, Pierret A, Hawke BG, Kirby JM (2002) Microbiological and chemical properties of soil associated with macropores at different depths in a red-duplex soil in NSW Australia. Plant Soil 238:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Passioura JB (2002) Soil conditions and plant growth. Plant Cell Environ 25:311–318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Péret B, Clément M, Nussaume L, Desnos T (2011) Root developmental adaptation to phosphate starvation: better safe than sorry. Trends Plant Sci 16:442–450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Perkons U, Kautz T, Uteau D, Peth S, Geier V, Thomas K, Lütke Holz K, Athmann M, Pude R, Köpke U (2014) Root-length densities of various annual crops following crops with contrasting root systems. Soil Tillage Res 137:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Richardson AE, Lynch JP, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Smith FA, Smith SE, Harvey PR, Ryan MH, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Oberson A, Culvenor RA, Simpson RJ (2011) Plant and microbial strategies to improve the phosphorus efficiency of agriculture. Plant Soil 349:121–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rose TJ, Rengel Z, Ma Q, Bowden JW (2007) Differential accumulation patterns of phosphorus and potassium by canola cultivars compared to wheat. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 170:404–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Santner J, Zhang H, Leitner D, Schnepf A, Prohaska T, Puschenreiter M, Wenzel WW (2012) High-resolution chemical imaging of labile phosphorus in the rhizosphere of Brassica napus L. cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 77:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schaap MG, Leij FJ, van Genuchten MT (2001) Rosetta: a computer program for estimating soil hydraulic parameters with hierarchical pedotransfer functions. J Hydrol 251:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schachtman DP, Reid RJ, Ayling SM (1998) Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiol 116:447–453CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Schüller H (1969) Die CAL-Methode, eine neue Methode zur Bestimmung des pflanzenverfügbaren Phosphates in Böden. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 123:48–63Google Scholar
  48. Shierlaw J, Alston AM (1984) Effect of soil compaction and root growth and uptake of phosphorus. Plant Soil 77:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Steingrobe B, Schmid H, Claassen N (2001) Root production and root mortality of winter barley and its implication with regard to phosphate acquisition. Plant Soil 237:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stirzaker RJ, Passioura JB, Wilms Y (1996) Soil structure and plant growth: impact of bulk density and biopores. Plant Soil 185:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stumpe H, Garz J, Scharf H (1994) Wirkung der Phosphatdüngung in einem 40jährigen Dauerversuch auf einer Sandlöß-Braunschwarzerde in Halle. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 157:105–110Google Scholar
  52. Stutter MI, Shand CA, George TS, Blackwell MSA, Bol R, Mackay RL, Richardson AE, Condron LM, Turner BL, Haygarth PM (2012) Recovering phosphorus from soil: a root solution? Environ Sci Technol 46:1977–1978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. van Genuchten MT (1980) A closed-form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Bragg J, Finnegan PM, Lovelock CE, Plaxton WC, Price CA, Scheible W-R, Shane MW, White PJ, Raven JA (2012) Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants. New Phytol 195:306–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. White RG, Kirkegaard JA (2010) The distribution and abundance of wheat roots in a dense, structured subsoil - implications for water uptake. Plant Cell Environ 33:133–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. White CA, Sylvester-Bradley R, Berry PM (2015) Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield. J Exp Bot 66:2293–2303CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. L. Bauke
    • 1
  • M. Landl
    • 2
  • M. Koch
    • 2
  • D. Hofmann
    • 2
  • K. A. Nagel
    • 3
  • N. Siebers
    • 2
  • A. Schnepf
    • 2
  • W. Amelung
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES) – Soil Science and Soil EcologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbHInstitute for Bio- and Geosciences – IBG-3: AgrosphereJülichGermany
  3. 3.Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbHInstitute for Bio- and Geosciences – IBG-2: Plant SciencesJülichGermany

Personalised recommendations