Plant and Soil

, Volume 416, Issue 1–2, pp 181–192 | Cite as

Trichoderma-enriched organic fertilizer can mitigate microbiome degeneration of monocropped soil to maintain better plant growth

  • Guan Pang
  • Feng Cai
  • Ruixia Li
  • Zheng Zhao
  • Rong Li
  • Xiaolong Gu
  • Qirong Shen
  • Wei ChenEmail author
Regular Article



Investigating shifts in soil microbiomes driven by different fertilization regimes would be helpful for lessening the negative effect of monoculture in agricultural systems.


In the present work, we employed MiSeq sequencing to evaluate the response of local microbial communities to three different fertilization regimes, i.e., heavy chemical fertilizer application (CF) and reduced chemical fertilizer applications supplemented with organic (OF) or Trichoderma-enriched organic fertilizer (BF), in a continuous five-season pot experiment on tomato.


The CF-treated soil resulted in a bacterial community with the lowest diversity, while the BF-treated soil had the highest diversity level. The OF-treated soil had the lowest diversity in the fungal community, while the CF- and BF-treated soils had higher diversity. Moreover, better plant growth and soil fertility status were obtained in the BF treatment followed by the OF and CF treatments.


Compared to the CF and OF regimes, reduced chemical fertilizer plus Trichoderma-enriched organic fertilizer (BF) is the most suitable regime to control microbiome degeneration of monocropped soil and to thus maintain tomato plant growth and health.


Tomato monocropping Soil microbiome MiSeq sequencing Soil nutrient characteristics 



This research was financially supported by 973 program (2015CB150500) and National Key Technology R&D Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2013BAD20B05 and L0201400202) and Jiangsu Science and Technology Department (BK20150059).

Supplementary material

11104_2017_3178_Fig4_ESM.gif (90 kb)
Figure S1

Rarefaction curves of bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities based on observed OTUs at 3% distance for individual sample. (GIF 90 kb)

11104_2017_3178_MOESM1_ESM.tif (2 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 2077 kb)
11104_2017_3178_Fig5_ESM.gif (38 kb)
Figure S2

Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) based on the unweighted Unifrac algorithm to visualize the pairwise community dissimilarity of the bacterial (a) and fungal (b) communities in the different soil samples. CF: 100% chemical fertilizer; BF: 75% chemical fertilizer + bioorganic fertilizer; OF: 75% chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer. (GIF 37 kb)

11104_2017_3178_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.9 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1913 kb)
11104_2017_3178_Fig6_ESM.gif (601 kb)
Figure S3

Tomato seedlings grown in the three soils four weeks post transplanting. CF: 100% chemical fertilizer; BF: 75% chemical fertilizer + bioorganic fertilizer; OF: 75% chemical fertilizer + organic fertilizer. (GIF 600 kb)

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High resolution image (TIFF 20033 kb)
11104_2017_3178_Fig7_ESM.gif (624 kb)
Figure S4

Heatmap of the bacterial (a) and fungal (b) distributions of the top 100 abundant genera present in all of the soil samples. The relative abundances of bacterial and fungal genera are indicated by colour intensity. (GIF 623 kb)

11104_2017_3178_MOESM4_ESM.tif (3.2 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 3251 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guan Pang
    • 1
  • Feng Cai
    • 1
  • Ruixia Li
    • 1
  • Zheng Zhao
    • 1
  • Rong Li
    • 1
  • Xiaolong Gu
    • 1
  • Qirong Shen
    • 1
  • Wei Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Jiangsu Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste UtilizationNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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