Application of biochar reduces Ralstonia solanacearum infection via effects on pathogen chemotaxis, swarming motility, and root exudate adsorption
We evaluated the efficacy of biochar application for suppressing bacterial wilt of tomato and identified the potential underlying mechanisms involved in the disease control.
We measured the impact of two different sized biochar (53–120 μm and 380–830 μm) on bacterial wilt incidence in a greenhouse experiment. The efficiency of different sized biochar for the adsorption of tomato root exudates and the pathogen was further examined in vitro. We also quantified the effects of biochar and tomato root exudates on two pathogen virulence factors, chemotaxis, swarming motility and examined the effect of biochar on pathogen root colonization.
Fine biochar application (3%; w:w) significantly decreased the bacterial wilt incidence by 19.9%. Biochar with different particle size had similar adsorption capacity for root exudates, while fine biochar was efficient (91%) in pathogen adsorption. Root exudates and fine biochar increased the chemotaxis ability of pathogen, while fine biochar reduced pathogen swarming motility and rhizosphere colonization.
Application of fine biochar can significantly decreased bacterial wilt incidence. This was mechanistically explained by biochar ability to 1) adsorb pathogen directly and indirectly via adsorption of root exudates (based on pathogen chemotaxis) and to 2) directly suppress pathogen swarming motility and subsequent root colonization.
KeywordsAdsorption Bacterial wilt Biochar Disease control Root exudate
- Badri DV, Chaparro JM, Zhang R, Shen Q, Vivanco JM (2013) Application of natural blends of phytochemicals derived from the root exudates of Arabidopsis to the soil reveal that phenolic-related compounds predominantly modulate the soil microbiome. J Biol Chem 288:4502–4512. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.433300 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Boyer F-D, de Saint GA, Pouvreau J-B, Clavé G, Pillot J-P, Roux A, Rasmussen A, Depuydt S, Lauressergues D, Frei dit Frey N, Heugebaert TSA, Stevens CV, Geelen D, Goormachtig S, Rameau C (2014) New strigolactone analogs as plant hormones with low activities in the rhizosphere. Mol Plant 7:675–690. doi:10.1093/mp/sst163 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Yan F, Chai Y, Liu H, Kolter R, Losick R, Guo J (2013) Biocontrol of tomato wilt disease by Bacillus subtilis isolates from natural environments depends on conserved genes mediating biofilm formation. Environ Microbiol 15:848–864. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02860.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Digonnet C, Martinez Y, Denance N, Chasseray M, Dabos P, Ranocha P, Marco Y, Jauneau A, Goffner D (2012) Deciphering the route of Ralstonia solanacearum colonization in Arabidopsis thaliana roots during a compatible interaction: focus at the plant cell wall. Planta 236:1419–1431. doi:10.1007/s00425-012-1694-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masiello CA, Chen Y, Gao X, Liu S, Cheng H-Y, Bennett MR, Rudgers JA, Wagner DS, Zygourakis K, Silberg JJ (2013) Biochar and microbial signaling: production conditions determine effects on microbial communication. Environ Sci Technol 47:11496–11503. doi:10.1021/es401458s CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Miyake-Nakayama C, Ikatsu H, Kashihara M, Tanaka M, Arita M, Miyoshi S, Shinoda S (2006) Biodegradation of dichloromethane by the polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized methylotrophic bacterium Ralstonia metallidurans PD11. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 70:625–630. doi:10.1007/s00253-005-0194-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, Gouzy J, Mangenot S, Arlat M, Billault A, Brottier P, Camus JC, Cattolico L, Chandler M, Choisne N, Claudel-Renard C, Cunnac S, Demange N, Gaspin C, Lavie M, Moisan A, Robert C, Saurin W, Schiex T, Siguier P, Thebault P, Whalen M, Wincker P, Levy M, Weissenbach J, Boucher CA (2002) Genome sequence of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Nature 415:497–502. doi:10.1038/415497a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schreiner K, Hagn A, Kyselkova M, Moenne-Loccoz Y, Welzl G, Munch JC, Schloter M (2010) Comparison of barley succession and take-all disease as environmental factors shaping the rhizobacterial community during take-all decline. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:4703–4712. doi:10.1128/AEM.00481-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Wei Z, Huang J-F, Hu J, Gu Y-A, Yang C-L, Mei X-L, Shen Q-R, Xu Y-C, Friman V-P (2015a) Altering transplantation time to avoid periods of high temperature can efficiently reduce bacterial wilt disease incidence with tomato. PLoS One 10:e0139313. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139313 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Xue QY, Yin YN, Yang W, Heuer H, Prior P, Guo JH, Smalla K (2011) Genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains from China assessed by PCR-based fingerprints to unravel host plant- and site-dependent distribution patterns. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 75:507–519. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.01026.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar