Spring to autumn changes in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition in the different propagule types associated to a Mediterranean shrubland
- 435 Downloads
Background and aims
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) appear differentially represented among propagule forms [intraradical mycelium (IRM) in colonized roots, spores and extraradical mycelium (ERM)]. However, spring to autumn changes in the AMF communities harboured in the different propagule forms has not been studied, being this the aim of the present study.
A terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism approach was used to monitor, in spring and autumn, the AMF community composition present in the three propagule types associated to five shrub species in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment.
The AMF community composition in roots was significantly different between spring and autumn; however, no significant differences were detected in soil propagules (spores and ERM). Different trends were identified according to the preferential biomass allocation patterns of AMF phylotypes, suggesting different life strategies: those allocating mainly into IRM (belonging to the Glomeraceae), ERM (Diversisporaceae and Gigasporaceae) or spores (Pacisporaceae and Paraglomeraceae).
Differences of AMF taxa in the biomass allocation patterns among propagules are maintained throughout the year. Progress in the knowledge of functional features of AMF communities and their responses to seasonal variations are important for the AMF application in Mediterranean ecosystems.
KeywordsArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Diversity Mycorrhizal propagules Seasonal changes Life strategy Mediterranean environments
Sara Varela-Cervero thanks the Formación de Personal Investigador Programme (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación) for financial support. This research was supported by the Spanish government under the Plan Nacional de I + D + I, co-financed by FEDER funds (project CGL-2009-08825) and the Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Economía, Innovación y Ciencia (project CVI-7640). We also thank the Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía (Spain) for permission to work in Sierra de Baza Natural Park. We sincerely thank Estefanía Berrio for technical assistance and José-Miguel Barea Azcón, from the Environment and Water Agency of Andalusia, for providing the climatic data of the study site. Additionally, we would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers and the Section Editor for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve the manuscript.
- Allen H (2009) Vegetation and ecosystem dynamics. In: Woodward JC (ed) The physical geography of the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 203–227Google Scholar
- Brito I, De Carvalho M, Goss MJ (2011) Summer survival of arbuscular mycorrhiza extraradical mycelium and the potential for its management through tillage options in Mediterranean cropping systems. Soil Use Manag 27:350–356Google Scholar
- Brundrett M, Melville L, Peterson L (1994) Practical methods in Mycorrhiza research. Mycologue Publications, University of Guelph, GuelphGoogle Scholar
- Grabherr G, Nagy L, Thompson O (2003) An outline of Europe’s alpine areas. In: Nagy L, Grabherr G, Korner Ch, Thompson OBA (eds) Alpine biodiversity in Europe. Ecological Series Berlin, Heidelberg Springer 167:3–12Google Scholar
- Holland SM (2008) Analytic Rarefaction 1.3. Available at http://strata.uga.edu/software/anRareReadme.html
- López-García A, Palenzuela J, Barea JM, Azcón-Aguilar C (2014b) Life-history strategies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determine succession into roots of Rosmarinus officinalis L., a characteristic woody perennial plant species from Mediterranean ecosystems. Plant Soil 379:247–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Henry M, Stevens H, Wagner H (2015) Vegan: community ecology package. R package version 2.3-1. Available at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
- Smith SE, Read DJ (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Varela-Cervero S, Vasar M, Davison J, Barea JM, Öpik M, Azcón-Aguilar C (2015) The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities differs among the roots, spores and extraradical mycelia associated with five Mediterranean plant species. Environ Microbiol 17:2882–2895CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zangaro W, Rostirola L, Souza P, Almeida AR, Lescano L, Rondina A, Nogueira M, Carrenho R (2013) Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil. Mycorrhiza 23:221–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar