Spatial variability of soil respiration in a 64-year-old longleaf pine forest
- 400 Downloads
The objectives of this study were to determine the spatial structure of soil respiration (Rs) in a naturally-regenerated longleaf pine forest and to assess the ecological factors affecting the spatial variability in Rs.
Soil respiration, soil temperature (Ts), and soil moisture were repeatedly measured over 6 days in summer 2012 in 3 semi-independent plots. Edaphic, forest floor, and root variables were measured. Diameters of 338 trees were mapped. Spatial analysis and regression were applied.
Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated across plots (66—92 m), but not within plots (6—34 m). Spatial distributions of Rs were relatively stable from morning through early evening and were decoupled from temporal variation of Ts. Ecological covariates (e.g., soil moisture, bulk density and carbon, litter mass, understory cover, roots, nearby trees) related to the spatial variability in Rs; however, models varied between plots.
This study shows the importance of stationary plant and soil factors in determining the spatial, temperature-independent distribution of Rs in a heterogeneous forest. We suggest the need for a better understanding of the complex interactions between the heterotrophic, autotrophic, and physical processes driving Rs in order to better model forest carbon budgets.
KeywordsPinus palustris Soil CO2 efflux Residual kriging Soil carbon Root biomass Litter
- ArchMiller AA, Samuelson LJ (2016) Intra-annual variation of soil respiration across four heterogeneous longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States. Forest Ecol Manag (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.05.016
- Fox GA, Negrete-Yankelevich S, Sosa VJ (eds) (2015) Ecological statistics: contemporary theory and application, first edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Geary RC (1954) The contiguity ratio and statistical mapping. Inc Stat 5:115–146Google Scholar
- Geng Y, Wang Y, Yang K et al (2012) Soil respiration in Tibetan alpine grasslands: belowground biomass and soil moisture, but not soil temperature, best explain the large-scale patterns. PLoS ONE 7(4):1–12Google Scholar
- Hodgkins EJ, Nichols NG (1977) Extent of main lateral roots in natural longleaf pine as related to position and age of the trees. For Sci 23(2):161–166Google Scholar
- Hue NV, Evans CE (1979) Procedures used by the Auburn University Soil Testing Laboratory. http://aurora.auburn.edu/handle/11200/1413. Accessed 27 November 2015
- Jose SJ, Jokela E, Miller DL (eds) (2006) The longleaf pine ecosystem: ecology, silviculture and restoration. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Law BE, Arkebauer T, Campbell JL et al (2008) Terrestrial carbon observations: protocols for vegetation sampling and data submission. Available from http://www.fao.org/gtos, Global Terrestrial Observing System, Rome, Italy
- Mäkiranta P, Minkkinen K, Hytönen J, Laine J (2008) Factors causing temporal and spatial variation in heterotrophic and rhizospheric components of soil respiration in afforested organic soil croplands in Finland. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1592–1600. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Climatic Data Center (2015a) 1981–2012 normals. Columbus Metropolitan Airport, GA. Station GHCND:USW00093842. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/datatools/normals. Accessed 15 January 2015
- National Climatic Data Center (2015b) Daily summaries. Columbus Metropolitan Airport, GA. Station GHCND:USW00093842. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/datatools/findstation. Accessed 12 February 2015
- Noss RF (1988) The longleaf pine landscape of the southeast: almost gone and almost forgotten. Endanger Species Updat 5(5):1–8Google Scholar
- Odom J, Kone M (1997) Elemental analysis procedures used by the Auburn University Department of Agronomy & Soils. Department Series Publication 203, Auburn University Department of Agronomy and SoilsGoogle Scholar
- Oram B, Nelson R (2014) Soil texture triangle: hydrolic properties calculator. Sourced from Saxton et al. (1986), Soil Sci Soc Amer J 50(4):1031–1036. http://hydrolab.arsusda.gov/soilwater/Index.htm. Accessed 21 November 2014
- Šálek L, Zahradník D (2008) Wedge prism as a tool for diameter and distance measurement. J For Sci 54(3):121–124Google Scholar
- Samuelson LJ, Whitaker WB (2012) Relationships between soil CO2 efflux and forest structure in 50-year-old longleaf pine. For Sci 58(5):472–484Google Scholar
- Soil Survey Staff (2014) Web soil survey. http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov. Downloaded January 2012
- Suchewaboripont V, Ando M, Iimura Y, Yoshitake S, Ohtsuka T (2015) The effect of canopy structure on soil respiration in an old-growth beech-oak forest in central Japan. Ecol Res 1–11Google Scholar