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Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects

Abstract

Background and aims

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have garnered interest in agriculture due to their ability to influence the growth and production of host plants. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play important roles in plant-microbe interactions by modulating plant root exudation. The present study aimed to provide a more precise understanding of the mechanism and specificity of the interaction between PGPR and host plants.

Methods

In the present study, the effects of interactions between a PGPR strain, Bacillus cereus AR156, and Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col-0) or its ABC transporter mutants on plant growth have been studied.

Results

B. cereus AR156 promoted the shoot growth of Col-0 and Atabcg30 but repressed the growth of Atabcc5. Bacterial volatiles and secretion promoted the shoot growth of Col-0 and Atabcg30 but had no effect on Atabcc5. We also found that root exudates of Col-0 induced the expression of B. cereus AR156 genes related to siderophore and chitinase production; while root exudates of Atabcc5 inhibited the expression level of those genes. Further analysis of root exudates revealed that amino acids, organic acids, and sugars were significantly less abundant in Atabcc5 when compared to Col-0.

Conclusions

Our findings highlight that both host plant and PGPR play active roles in the outcome of the plant-microbe interaction.

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Acknowledgments

We thank members of Professors Vivanco’s and Guo’s groups for technical assistance and helpful discussions. We especially thank Prof. Congfeng Song (Nanjing Agricultural University, China) and Dr. Azeddine Driouich (Universite’ de Rouen, France) for helpful suggestions. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.31471812 and No.31171809) to JG, China Scholarship Council (No. 201206850028) to DZ, and by Colorado State University Agricultural Experiment Station.

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Fig. S1
figure 6

Effect of B. cereus AR156 on the shoot growth of 35 d-old Arabidopsis Col-0 and different ABC transporter mutants. (A) Shoot fresh weight was determined at 21 days after inoculation of B. cereus AR156. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the treatments of a given mutants with or without AR156 (t-test; p<0.05). (B)The image represents plants at 21 days after inoculation. (GIF 74 kb)

Fig. S2
figure 7

AR156 is not pathogenic to Atabcc5 and Col-0. The seedlings at 18 d-old were injected with Bacillus AR156 at a concentration of 2×108 CFU/mL on the leaf and incubated for 24 h. The control was inoculated with water. Each treatment contained 6 plants. (GIF 200 kb)

Table S1

Primers used for amplification of Bacillus cereus AR156 bioactivity genes. (PDF 442 kb)

Table S2

Root exudate data of Col-0 and Atabbc5 analyzed via GC-MS. Data is normalized by the internal standard Ribitol within sample. Field name is as follows [molecular weight (retention time followed by compound identification)]. (XLSX 82 kb)

High resulotion Image (TIF 6140 kb)

High resulotion Image (TIF 162 kb)

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Zhou, D., Huang, XF., Chaparro, J.M. et al. Root and bacterial secretions regulate the interaction between plants and PGPR leading to distinct plant growth promotion effects. Plant Soil 401, 259–272 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2743-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2743-7

Keywords

  • Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria
  • Root exudates
  • ABC transporters
  • Bacillus cereus
  • Bacterial secretions