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Plant and Soil

, Volume 405, Issue 1–2, pp 357–370 | Cite as

Plant-associated microbiomes in arid lands: diversity, ecology and biotechnological potential

  • Asma Soussi
  • Raoudha Ferjani
  • Ramona Marasco
  • Amel Guesmi
  • Hanene Cherif
  • Eleonora Rolli
  • Francesca Mapelli
  • Hadda Imene Ouzari
  • Daniele Daffonchio
  • Ameur CherifEmail author
Regular Article

Abstract

Background

Aridification is a worldwide serious threat directly affecting agriculture and crop production. In arid and desert areas, it has been found that microbial diversity is huge, built of microorganisms able to cope with the environmental harsh conditions by developing adaptation strategies. Plants growing in arid lands or regions facing prolonged abiotic stresses such as water limitation and salt accumulation have also developed specific physiological and molecular stress responses allowing them to thrive under normally unfavorable conditions.

Scope

Under such extreme selection pressures, special root-associated bacterial assemblages, endowed with capabilities of plant growth promotion (PGP) and extremophile traits, are selected by the plants. In this review, we provide a general overview on the microbial diversity in arid lands and deserts versus specific microbial assemblages associated with plants. The ecological drivers that shape this diversity, how plant-associated microbiomes are selected, and their biotechnological potential are discussed.

Conclusions

Selection and recruitment of the plant associated bacterial assemblages is mediated by the combination of the bio-pedo-agroclimatic conditions and the plant species or varieties. Diversity and functional redundancy of these associated PGPR makes them very active in supporting plant improvement, health and resistance to drought, salt and related stresses. Implementing proper biotechnological applications of the arid and desert-adapted PGPR constitute the challenge to be raised.

Keywords

Plant associated microbiome Arid land Extreme environments Drought Salinity Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Sustainable agriculture Biotechnology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank for financial support the European Union in the ambit of project BIODESERT (EU FP7-CSA-SA REGPOT-2008-2, grant agreement no. 245746), and the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific research in the ambit of the laboratory projects LR MBA206 and LR11ES31.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asma Soussi
    • 1
  • Raoudha Ferjani
    • 2
  • Ramona Marasco
    • 1
  • Amel Guesmi
    • 2
  • Hanene Cherif
    • 2
  • Eleonora Rolli
    • 3
  • Francesca Mapelli
    • 3
  • Hadda Imene Ouzari
    • 2
  • Daniele Daffonchio
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ameur Cherif
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering DivisionKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Microorganisms and Active Biomolecules, Faculty of Sciences of TunisUniversity of Tunis El ManarTunisTunisia
  3. 3.Department of Food Environmental and Nutritional SciencesUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanoItaly
  4. 4.Higher Institute of Biotechnology, LR11-ES31 Biotechnology and Bio-Geo Resources ValorizationUniversity of ManoubaArianaTunisia

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