Plant and Soil

, Volume 405, Issue 1–2, pp 107–123 | Cite as

Functional role of an endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in enhancing growth and disease protection of invasive English ivy (Hedera helix L.)

  • Marcos Antônio SoaresEmail author
  • Hai-Yan Li
  • Marshall Bergen
  • Joaquim Manoel da Silva
  • Kurt P. Kowalski
  • James Francis WhiteEmail author
Regular Article



We hypothesize that invasive English ivy (Hedera helix) harbors endophytic microbes that promote plant growth and survival. To evaluate this hypothesis, we examined endophytic bacteria in English ivy and evaluated effects on the host plant.


Endophytic bacteria were isolated from multiple populations of English ivy in New Brunswick, NJ. Bacteria were identified as a single species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. One strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, strain C6c, was characterized for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis against pathogens. PCR was used to amplify lipopeptide genes and their secretion into culture media was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Capability to promote growth of English ivy was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The capacity of C6c to protect plants from disease was evaluated by exposing B+ (bacterium inoculated) and B− (non-inoculated) plants to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria tenuissima.


B. amyloliquefaciens C6c systemically colonized leaves, petioles, and seeds of English ivy. C6c synthesized IAA and inhibited plant pathogens. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis revealed secretion of antifungal lipopeptides surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin, and fengycin. C6c promoted the growth of English ivy in low and high soil nitrogen conditions. This endophytic bacterium efficiently controlled disease caused by Alternaria tenuissima.


This study suggests that B. amyloliquefaciens plays an important role in enhancing growth and disease protection of English ivy.


Lipopeptide Biological control Plant growth promotion Invasive plants 



The Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT), Department of Plant Biology and Pathology of Rutgers University; The Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for Post Doctoral Fellowship; International Institute of Science and Technology in Wetlands (INAU); and Sr. Qiang Chen for confocal microscopy assistance were acknowledged. The authors are also grateful to the support from the John E. and Christina C. Craighead Foundation, USDA-NIFA Multistate Project W3147, and the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. Any use of trade, product or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. This article is Contribution 1957 of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center.

Supplementary material

11104_2015_2638_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (392 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 391 kb)
11104_2015_2638_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (205 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 205 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcos Antônio Soares
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hai-Yan Li
    • 2
  • Marshall Bergen
    • 3
  • Joaquim Manoel da Silva
    • 4
  • Kurt P. Kowalski
    • 5
  • James Francis White
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Botany and EcologyFederal University of Mato GrossoCuiabáBrazil
  2. 2.Faculty of Life Sciences and TechnologyKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  3. 3.Department of Plant Biology and PathologyRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  4. 4.Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Biological and Applied SocialUniversity of the State of Mato GrossoNew XavantinaBrazil
  5. 5.U.S. Geological SurveyGreat Lakes Science CenterAnn ArborUSA

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