Diversity and functional characterization of bacterial endophytes dwelling in various rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues, and their seed-borne dissemination into rhizosphere under gnotobiotic P-stress

Abstract

Aim

Endophytic bacterial diversity in four rice cultivars grown in two soil-types, their plant-probiotic features and rhizospheric deployment under P-stress were investigated.

Methods

Oryza sativa cvs. TCN1, TCS10, TK8, and TN71 were cultivated in greenhouse using non-sterile acidic and near-neutral paddy soils for 60 days. Root, stem and leaf tissues were screened for culturable bacterial endophytes using nutrient agar. Endophytes were identified and profiled for plant-probiotic features. The richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity, evenness and Venn’s distribution in terms of endophytic strains were evaluated. Seed-borne endophytes were characterized through DGGE. The deployment of endophytes into the rhizosphere in TCN1 and TK8 under gnotobiotic P-stress was assessed.

Results

A total of 52 distinct endophytic bacterial strains affiliated to 5 classes and 20 discrete genera exhibiting differential plant-probiotic features were isolated from various tissues of four different rice cultivars. The diversity and distribution of endophytes fluctuated with soil-type, tissue-type and rice genotype. Gnotobiotic insoluble P treatment revealed significantly enhanced deployment of P-solubilizing rhizobacteria in TCN1 as compared to soluble P and P-lacking control.

Conclusions

Rice endophytic bacteria are diverse, and their distribution within the plant and deployment as rhizobacteria were found to be influenced by host genotype, edaphic factors and nutrient stress.

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Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank the editor and anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on this manuscript. Authors acknowledge Dr. Wei-An Lai for technical support. This research was funded by grants (Grant No. 100-2313-B-150-001-MY3 and 102-2321-B-150-001) from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Responsible Editor: Choong-Min Ryu.

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Hameed, A., Yeh, MW., Hsieh, YT. et al. Diversity and functional characterization of bacterial endophytes dwelling in various rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues, and their seed-borne dissemination into rhizosphere under gnotobiotic P-stress. Plant Soil 394, 177–197 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2506-5

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Keywords

  • Rice endophytes
  • Shannon-Weiner index
  • Siderophore
  • Biocontrol
  • Diazotroph
  • P-solubilizing bacteria
  • Nutrient stress