Plant and Soil

, Volume 374, Issue 1–2, pp 883–898 | Cite as

Comparison of methane, nitrous oxide fluxes and CO2 respiration rates from a Mediterranean cork oak ecosystem and improved pasture

  • Alla Shvaleva
  • Filipe Costa e Silva
  • Joaquim Miguel Costa
  • Alexandra Correia
  • Margaret Anderson
  • Raquel Lobo-do-Vale
  • David Fangueiro
  • Catarina Bicho
  • João Santos Pereira
  • Maria Manuela Chaves
  • Ute Skiba
  • Cristina Cruz
Regular Article


Background and aims

During the recent decades, cork oak (Q. suber) mortality has been increasing in Mediterranean oak woodland endangering the economical and environmental sustainability of the “montado” ecosystem. This fact in combination with climate change and conversion of forestland to pasture may significantly affect the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gases (GHGs) exchange. Our study evaluates the impact of oak trees as compared to pasture on net ecosystem GHG (CH4, N2O, and CO2) exchange as well as the main environmental factors influencing this exchange.


We used field chamber measurements for the collection of GHGs under three different conditions: 1) open area (OA), 2) under tree canopy area (UC) and 3) improved pasture (IP). Experiments were done under typical Mediterranean climate at central Portugal in 2010 and 2011.


The UC had higher nitrification potential, soil C/N ratio, electrical conductivity, litter input and soil organic matter (SOM) than OA and IP. SOM positively correlated with soil CH4 and N2O fluxes but not with soil CO2 respiration rates. Soil water content (SWC) drives both CH4 and N2O fluxes. Under certain conditions, when SWC reached a threshold (7 % for CH4 and 3 % for N2O) the result was net uptake and that net uptake increased with SWC. This was the case for the UC and OA. Conversely, for the IP soil water content above 4 % promoted net CH4 release.


Our results show that cork oak influences soil properties and consequently GHGs fluxes. In the UC the input of litter for SOM together with soil moisture, favoured microbiological activity and related GHGs fluxes. Soil temperature is a secondary factor in the studied conditions. Our results also emphasized the potential impact posed by decreased cork oak tree density in the functioning of the “montado” ecosystem.


Evergreen oak Greenhouse gases Litter Mediterranean Organic matter Root density 



Greenhouse gases


Improved pasture


Open area


Soil CO2 respiration rate


Soil organic matter


Under tree canopy


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alla Shvaleva
    • 1
  • Filipe Costa e Silva
    • 2
  • Joaquim Miguel Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alexandra Correia
    • 2
  • Margaret Anderson
    • 3
  • Raquel Lobo-do-Vale
    • 2
  • David Fangueiro
    • 2
  • Catarina Bicho
    • 1
  • João Santos Pereira
    • 2
  • Maria Manuela Chaves
    • 1
  • Ute Skiba
    • 3
  • Cristina Cruz
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto de Tecnologia Química e BiológicaUniversidade Nova de LisboaOeirasPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Superior de AgronomiaUniversidade Técnica de LisboaLisboaPortugal
  3. 3.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Natural Environment Research CouncilBush EstatePenicuikUK
  4. 4.Faculdade de CiênciasUniversidade de LisboaLisboaPortugal

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