Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 373, Issue 1–2, pp 359–372 | Cite as

Phosphorus availability in chicken manure is lower with increased stockpiling period, despite a larger orthophosphate content

  • C. A. E. PeirceEmail author
  • R. J. Smernik
  • T. M. McBeath
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

The relative proportions of phosphorus (P) forms present in manure will determine the overall availability of manure P to plants; however, the link between the forms of P in manures and manure P availability is unclear. This study compares the bioavailability and P speciation of three manures of different stockpiling duration: less than 1 month, 6 months and 12 months; manures were collected concurrently from a single poultry farm.

Methods

Bioavailability to wheat in a glasshouse trial was measured using an isotopic dilution method with manure added at an application rate equivalent to 20 kg P ha−1. Phosphorus speciation was measured by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis of NaOH-EDTA extracts of the manures.

Results

The addition of all manures significantly increased shoot biomass and P concentration, with the fresh manure having the greatest effect. Addition of the fresh manure resulted in the largest labile P pool, highest manure P uptake and manure P recovery, while the manure stockpiled for 12 months resulted in the lowest manure P uptake and manure P recovery. NMR analysis indicated that there was more monoester organic P, especially phytate, in manure stockpiled for shorter periods, while the proportion of manure P that was orthophosphate increased with stockpiling time.

Conclusions

Together, these results imply that although the proportion of total P in the manures detected as orthophosphate was higher with longer stockpiling, only a fraction of this orthophosphate was plant-available. This suggests the availability of P from orthophosphate in manures decreases with longer stockpiling time in much the same way that P from orthophosphate in mineral fertilizer becomes less available in soil over time.

Keywords

Chicken manure Stockpiling Phosphorus availability Isotopic technique NMR spectroscopy 

Abbreviations

DAP

Diammonium phosphate

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid

ICP-AES

Inductively coupled plasma—atomic emission spectroscopy

MDP

Methylene diphosphonic acid

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

P

Phosphorus

Pdfm

P derived from manure

TSP

Triple superphosphate

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Caroline Johnston, Colin Rivers and Steve Szarvas for analyses and technical assistance. C Peirce thanks the Grains Research and Development Corporation for the Undergraduate Honours Scholarship.

References

  1. Adler PR, Sikora LJ (2003) Changes in soil phosphorus availability with poultry compost age. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajiboye B, Akinremi OO, Hu Y, Flaten DN (2007) Phosphorus speciation of sequential extracts of organic amendments using nuclear magnetic resonance and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopies. J Environ Qual 36:1563–1576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnett GM (1994) Phosphorus forms in animal manure. Bioresour Technol 49:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrow NJ (1975) Chemical form of inorganic phosphate in sheep faeces. Aust J Soil Res 13:63–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertrand I, McLaughlin M, Holloway RE, Armstrong RD, McBeath T (2006) Changes in P bioavailability induced by the application of liquid and powder sources of P, N and Zn fertilizers in alkaline soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 74:27–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bramley RGV, Barrow NJ (1992) The reaction between phosphate and dry soil. II. The effect of time, temperature and moisture status during incubation on the amount of plant available P. J Soil Sci 43:759–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cade-Menun BJ, Preston CM (1996) A comparison of soil extraction procedures for 31P NMR spectroscopy. Soil Sci 161:770–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Casteel SN, Maguire RO, Israel DW, Crozier CR, Brake J (2011) Broiler breeder manure phosphorus forms are affected by diet, location, and period of accumulation. Poult Sci 90:2689–2696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Colwell JD (1963) The estimation of the phosphorus fertilizer requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis. Aust J Exp Agric 3:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cordell D, Drangert J-O, White S (2009) The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Glob Environ Chang 19:292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornish PS (2010) A postscript to “Peak P”- an agronomist’s response to diminishing P reserves. In: Dove H (ed) “Food Security from Sustainable Agriculture” Proceedings of 15th Agronomy Conference 2010. Australian Society of Agronomy: Lincoln, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  12. Crouse DA, Sierzputowska-Gracz H, Mikkelsen RL, Wollum AG (2002) Monitoring phosphorus mineralization from poultry manure using phosphatase assays and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 33:1205–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeLaune PB, Moore PA, Lemunyon JL (2006) Effect of chemical and microbial amendment on phosphorus runoff from composted poultry litter. J Environ Qual 35:1291–1296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Dougherty WJ (2009) Spiking improved solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance identification of soil phosphorus compounds. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:919–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doolette AL, Smernik RJ, Dougherty WJ (2010) Rapid decomposition of phytate applied to a calcareous soil demonstrated by a solution 31P NMR study. Eur J Soil Sci 61:563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dou Z, Knowlton KF, Kohn RA, Wu Z, Satter LD, Zhang G, Toth JD, Ferguson JD (2002) Phosphorus characteristics of dairy feces affected by diets. J Environ Qual 31:2058–2065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eghball B, Power JF (1999) Phosphorus- and nitrogen-based manure and compost applications: corn production and soil phosphorus. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:895–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eneji AE, Honna T, Yamamoto S, Masuda T, Endo T, Irshad M (2003) Changes in humic substances and phosphorus fractions during composting. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 34:2303–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gagnon B, Simard RR (2003) Soil P fractions as affected by on-farm composts in a controlled incubation study. Can J Soil Sci 83:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE (1992) The effects of root-induced pH changes on the depletion of inorganic and organic phosphorus in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 143:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen JC, Cade-Menun BJ, Strawn DG (2004) Phosphorus speciation in manure-amended alkaline soils. J Environ Qual 33:1521–1527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. He ZQ, Cade-Menun BJ, Toor GS, Fortuna AM, Honeycutt CW, Sims JT (2007) Comparison of phosphorus forms in wet and dried animal manures by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and enzymatic hydrolysis. J Environ Qual 36:1086–1095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. He Z, Honeycutt CW, Cade-Menun BJ, Senwo ZN, Tazisong IA (2008) Phosphorus in poultry litter and soil: enzymatic and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1425–1433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hedley M, McLaughlin M (2005) Reaction of phosphate fertilizers and by-products in soils. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 181–252Google Scholar
  25. Hill JE, Cade-Menun BJ (2009) Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy transect study of poultry operations on the Delmarva Peninsula. J Environ Qual 38:130–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Isbell RF (1997) The Australian soil classification. CSIRO, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaiser DE, Mallarino AP, Sawyer JE (2010) Utilization of poultry manure phosphorus for corn production. Soil Sci Soc Am J 74:2211–2222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klute A (1986) Water retention: Laboratory methods. American Society of Agronomy Inc./ Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  29. Larney FJ, Buckley KE, Hao X, McCaughey WP (2006a) Fresh, stockpiled, and composted beef cattle feedlot manure: nutrient levels and mass balance estimates in Alberta and Manitoba. J Environ Qual 35:1844–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Larney FJ, Sullivan DM, Buckley KE, Eghball B (2006b) The role of composting in recycling manure nutrients. Can J Soil Sci 86:597–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larsen S (1952) The use of 32P in studies on the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant Soil 4:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Leinweber P, Haumaier L, Zech W (1997) Sequential extractions and 31P-NMR spectroscopy of phosphorus forms in animal manures, whole soils and particle-size separates from a densely populated livestock area in northwest Germany. Biol Fertil Soils 25:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Leytem AB, Thacker PA (2008) Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains. J Anim Vet Adv 7:113–120Google Scholar
  34. Leytem AB, Smith DR, Applegate TJ, Thacker PA (2006) The influence of manure phytic acid on phosphorus solubility in calcareous soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1629–1638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leytem AB, Kwanyuen P, Plumstead PW, Maguire RO, Brake J (2008) Evaluation of phosphorus characterization in broiler ileal digesta, manure, and litter samples: 31P-NMR vs. HPLC. J Environ Qual 37:494–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maguire RO, Plumstead PW, Brake J (2006) Impact of diet, moisture, location, and storage on soluble phosphorus in broiler breeder manure. J Environ Qual 35:858–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Makarov MI, Haumaier L, Zech W (2002) Nature of soil organic phosphorus: an assessment of peak assignments in the diester region of 31P NMR spectra. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1467–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mason S, McNeill A, McLaughlin MJ, Zhang H (2010) Prediction of wheat response to an application of phosphorus under field conditions using diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and extraction methods. Plant Soil 337:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McAuliffe C, Peech M (1949) Utilization by plants of phosphorus in farm manure: I. Labelling of phosphorus in sheep manure with P32. Soil Sci 68:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McDowell RW, Stewart I (2005) Phosphorus in fresh and dry dung of grazing dairy cattle, deer, and sheep: sequential fraction and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. J Environ Qual 34:598–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McGrath JM, Sims JT, Maguire RO, Saylor WW, Angel CR, Turner BL (2005) Broiler diet modification and litter storage: Impacts on phosphorus in litters, soils, and runoff. J Environ Qual 34:1896–1909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Merry RH, Spouncer LR (1988) The measurement of carbon in soils using a microprocessor-controlled resistance furnace. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 19:707–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moody PW (2007) Interpretation of a single-point P buffering index for adjusting critical levels of the Colwell soil P test. Aust J Soil Res 45:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morel C, Fardeau JC (1990) Uptake of phosphate from soils and fertilizers as affected by soil P availability and solubility of phosphorus fertilizers. Plant Soil 121:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mortvedt JJ, Murphy LS, Follett RH (1999) Fertilizer technology and application. Meister Publishing Co, Willoughby, p 37Google Scholar
  46. Oberson A, Tagmann HU, Langmeier M, Dubois D, Mäder P, Frossard E (2010) Fresh and residual phosphorus uptake by ryegrass from soils with different fertilization histories. Plant Soil 334:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Preusch PL, Adler PR, Sikora LJ, Tworkoski TJ (2002) Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in composted and uncomposted poultry litter. J Environ Qual 31:2051–2057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rayment GE, Higginson FR (1992) Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods. Inkata Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  49. Reuter DJ, Robinson JB (eds) (1997) Plant analysis - an interpretation manual. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  50. Sato S, Solomon D, Hyland C, Ketterings QM, Lehmann J (2005) Phosphorus speciation in manure and manure-amended soils using XANES spectroscopy. Environ Sci Technol 39:7485–7491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shafqat MN, Pierzynski GM, Xia K (2009) Phosphorus source effects on soil organic phosphorus: a 31P NMR study. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 40:1722–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sharpley AN, McDowell RW, Kleinman PJA (2004) Amounts, forms, and solubility of phosphorus in soils receiving manure. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:2048–2057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sikora LJ, Enkiri NK (2003) Availability of poultry litter compost P to fescue compared with triple super phosphate. Soil Sci 168:192–199Google Scholar
  54. Sikora LJ, Enkiri NK (2005) Comparison of phosphorus uptake from poultry litter compost with triple superphosphate in Codorus soil. Agron J 97:668–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Traoré O, Sinaj S, Frossard E, Van De Kerkhove JM (1999) Effect of composting time on phosphate exchangeability. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 55:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Turner BL (2004) Optimizing phosphorus characterization in animal manures by solution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Environ Qual 33:757–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Turner BL, Leytem AB (2004) Phosphorus compounds in sequential extracts of animal manures: Chemical speciation and a novel fractionation procedure. Environ Sci Technol 38:6101–6108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Turner BL, Mahieu N, Condron LM (2003) Quantification of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in alkaline soil extracts by solution 31P NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Soil Sci 168:469–478Google Scholar
  59. Turner BL, Cade-Menun BJ, Condron LM, Newman S (2005) Extraction of soil organic phosphorus. Talanta 66:294–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. USDA (1982) Particle size analysis. In: Procedures for collecting soil samples and methods of analysis for soil survey. Ed. S Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  61. Vadas PA, Meisinger JJ, Sikora LJ, McMurtry JP, Sefton AE (2004) Effect of poultry diet on phosphorus in runoff from soils amended with poultry manure and compost. J Environ Qual 33:1845–1854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vervoort RW, Radcliffe DE, Cabrera ML, Latimore M (1998) Field-scale nitrogen and phosphorus losses from hayfields receiving fresh and composted broiler litter. J Environ Qual 27:1246–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vitousek PM, Porder S, Houlton BZ, Chadwick OA (2010) Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen-phosphorus interactions. Ecol Appl 20:5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zadoks JC, Chang TT, Konzak CF (1974) A decimal code for the growth stages of cereals. Weed Res 14:415–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zapata F, Axmann H (1995) 32P isotopic techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of rock phosphate materials. Fertil Res 41:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zarcinas BA, Cartwright B, Spouncer LR (1987) Nitric acid digestion and multi-element analysis of plant material by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 18:131–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zarcinas BA, McLaughlin MJ, Smart MK (1996) The effect of acid digestion technique on the performance of nebulization systems used in inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 27:1331–1354CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. E. Peirce
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. J. Smernik
    • 1
  • T. M. McBeath
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Agriculture, Food and Wine and The Waite Research InstituteUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations