Transgenic Bt rice has adverse impacts on CH4 flux and rhizospheric methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial communities
- First Online:
- 828 Downloads
Background and Aims
The effect of transgenic insect-resistant crops on soil microorganisms has become an issue of public concern. The goal of this study was to firstly realize the variation of in situ methane (CH4) emission flux and methanogenic and methanotrophic communities due to planting transgenic Bt rice (Bt) cultivar.
CH4 emitted from paddy soil was collected by static closed chamber technique. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR methods were employed to analyze methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial community structure and abundance.
Results showed that planting Bt rice cultivar effectively reduced in situ CH4 emission flux and methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial community abundance and diversity. Data analysis showed that in situ CH4 emission flux increased significantly with the increase of methanogenic archaeal abundance (R2 = 0.839, p < 0.001) and diversity index H′ (R2 = 0.729, p < 0.05), whereas was not obviously related to methanotrophic bacterial community.
Our results suggested that the lower in situ CH4 emission flux from Bt soil may result from lower methanogenic archaeal community abundance and diversity, lower methanogenic activity and higher methanotrophic activity. Moreover, our results inferred that specific functional microorganisms may be a more sensitive indicator than the total archaeal, bacterial or fungal population to assess the effects of transgenic insect-resistant plants on soil microorganisms.
KeywordsEcological risk Transgenic Bt rice Paddy ecosystem Methane emission flux Functional microbial community dynamics Plant-soil interaction
Transgenic Bt rice
Non-transgenic parental rice control
Mid-season aeration stage
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
Operational taxonomic unit
Principal component analysis
- Amann RI, Ludwig W, Scheidler KH (1995) Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 59:143–169Google Scholar
- Bousquet P, Ciais P, Miller JB, Dlugokencky EJ, Hauglustaine DA, Prigent C, Van der Werf GR, Peylin P, Brunke EG, Carouge C, Langenfelds RL, Lathiėre J, Papa F, Ramonet M, Schmidt M, Steele LP, Tyler SC, White J (2006) Contribution of anthropogenic and natural sources to atmospheric methane variability. Nature 443:439–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Castaldini M, Turrini A, Sbrana C, Benedetti A, Marchionni M, Mocali S, Fabiani A, Landi S, Santomassimo F, Pietrangeli B, Nuti MP, Miclaus N, Giovannetti M (2005) Impact of Bt corn on rhizospheric and soil eubacterial communities and on Beneficial mycorrhizal symbiosis in experimental microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:6719–6729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT (2006) FAOSTAT Database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. http://faostat.fao.org/
- Griffiths BS, Caul S, Thompson J, Birch ANE, Scrimgeour C, Cortet J, Foggo A, Hackett CA, Krogh PH (2005) A comparison of soil microbial community structure, protozoa and nematodes in field plots of conventional and genetically modified maize expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin. Plant Soil 275:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I. II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Li CL, Zhang JD, Hou ZQ (1993) Techniques for high yield cultivations of several main crops. China Scientific and Technological Publishing House, Beijing (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Lu RK (1999) Soil Agro-Chemical Analyses. Agricultural Technical Press of China, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Luton PE, Wayne JM, Sharp RJ, Riley PW (2002) The mcrA gene as an alternative to 16S rRNA in the phylogenetic analysis of methanogen populations in landfill. Microbiol 148:3521–3530Google Scholar
- State Statistical Bureau (2009) China Statistical yearbook 2009. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2009/indexch.htm
- Weisskopf L, Le Baton RC, Kohler F, Page V, Jossi M, Gobat JM, Martinoia E, Aragno M (2008) Spatio-temporal dynamics of bacterial communities associated with two plant species differing in organic acid serection: A one-year microcosm study on lupin and wheat. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1772–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yan X, Akiyama H, Yagi K, Akimoto H (2009) Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines. Global Biogeochem Cycle 23. doi:10.1029/2008GB003299