Plant and Soil

, Volume 369, Issue 1–2, pp 297–316 | Cite as

Transgenic Bt rice has adverse impacts on CH4 flux and rhizospheric methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial communities

Regular Article

Abstract

Background and Aims

The effect of transgenic insect-resistant crops on soil microorganisms has become an issue of public concern. The goal of this study was to firstly realize the variation of in situ methane (CH4) emission flux and methanogenic and methanotrophic communities due to planting transgenic Bt rice (Bt) cultivar.

Methods

CH4 emitted from paddy soil was collected by static closed chamber technique. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR methods were employed to analyze methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial community structure and abundance.

Results

Results showed that planting Bt rice cultivar effectively reduced in situ CH4 emission flux and methanogenic archaeal and methanotrophic bacterial community abundance and diversity. Data analysis showed that in situ CH4 emission flux increased significantly with the increase of methanogenic archaeal abundance (R2 = 0.839, p < 0.001) and diversity index H′ (R2 = 0.729, p < 0.05), whereas was not obviously related to methanotrophic bacterial community.

Conclusions

Our results suggested that the lower in situ CH4 emission flux from Bt soil may result from lower methanogenic archaeal community abundance and diversity, lower methanogenic activity and higher methanotrophic activity. Moreover, our results inferred that specific functional microorganisms may be a more sensitive indicator than the total archaeal, bacterial or fungal population to assess the effects of transgenic insect-resistant plants on soil microorganisms.

Keywords

Ecological risk Transgenic Bt rice Paddy ecosystem Methane emission flux Functional microbial community dynamics Plant-soil interaction 

Abbreviate

Bt

Transgenic Bt rice

Ck

Non-transgenic parental rice control

S1

Seedling stage

S2

Tillering stage

S3

Mid-season aeration stage

S4

Filling stage

S5

Maturing stage

DGGE

Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

OTU

Operational taxonomic unit

PCA

Principal component analysis

Supplementary material

11104_2012_1522_MOESM1_ESM.doc (219 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 219 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Life ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Geography ScienceNanjing Normal UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Biosafety, Ministry of Environmental Protection of ChinaNanjing Institute of Environmental SciencesNanjingChina

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